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l-J.-J   ^^ 




Contadnin^  brief  zwnd  2v,ccur&.te 
accounts  of  the  proper  names  men- 
tioned in  classical  literature 

Edited  with  Introduction  by 

Edwzwrd   S.   Elliy-.   A.   M, 

Author  of  "  Plutarch's  Lives,"  etc. 



The  Penn  Publbhin^  C^ompany 


Copyright  1895  by  the  Woolfall  Company 

Copyright  1900  by  the  Penn  Tuulishing  Compani 


The  word  classic  or  classical  is  defined  as 
pure,  refined ;  conformed  to  the  best  and  most 
perfect  standard;  also  pertaining  to  the 
ancient  Greek  and  Latin  authors,  or  rendered 
famous  b}'  association  with  ancient  writers,  as 
"  classic  ground." 

The  ancient  Romans  were  divided  into  six 
classes.  Those  of  the  highest  class  were 
called  classici,  and  from  this  the  term  came 
to  signify  the  highest  and  purest  class  of 
writers  in  any  language,  though  at  first  ap- 
plied only  to  the  most  esteemed  Greek  and 
Latin  authors. 

Whether  an  ancient  writer  should  be  ranked 
as  a  classic  is  not  determined  (as  it  would 
seem  ought  to  be  the  case)  by  what  he  wrote, 
but  by  the  period  in  which  he  wrote.  The 
classical  age  of  Greek  literature  begins  with 



Homer,  the  earliest  Greek  writer  whose 
works  are  extant,  and  extends  probably  to 
the  time  of  the  Roman  emperor  Antonine, 
although  signs  of  decadence  began  to  appear 
about  300  B.C. 

The  Latin  classical  period  is  not  so  ex- 
tended, its  earliest  writer  being  Plautus,  and 
it  came  to  an  end  about  200  a.d.  There  are 
some,  however,  who  include  Claudian,  born 
near  365  a.d.,  among  the  classics. 

Humanism  is  that  theory  of  education 
which  aims  to  give  a  symmetrical  develop- 
ment to  the  intellectual  and  moral  powers  b}^ 
means  of  the  study  of  the  classical  literature 
and  arts,  or  more  largely  the  study  of  the 
classics,  or  the  culture  of  belles-lettres  in 

The  history  of  Humanism  divides  itself 
into  four  distinct  periods. 

I.  The  formative  period,  extending  from 
the  fifth  century  before  to  the  fifth  century 
after  Christ.  H.  The  period  of  the  Middle 
Ages.  HI.  The  Renaissance  or  revival  of 
learning,  extending  from  the  beginning  of 
the  fourteenth  to  the  end  of  the  eighteenth 


century.  IV.  The  period  of  philological 
science,  embracing  a  portion  of  the  eigh- 
teenth and  the  nineteenth  centuries. 

I.  The  Formative  Period. — The  systematic 
use  of  literary  studies  in  education  appears  to 
have  begun  among  the  ancients  about  the 
fifth  century  B.C.  The  ridiculed  sophists 
and  rhetoricians  gave  a  new  direction  to 
education  by  their  attempt  to  make  it  more 
practical,  thus  greatly  helping  all  the  arts 
connected  with  literature, — as  grammar, 
rhetoric,  logic,  lexicography,  etc.  Studies 
were  expanded  after  the  founding  of  Alex- 
andria. The  scholarly  investigation  and  ex- 
planation of  the  literary  monuments  of  the 
past  began  and  were  pressed  by  the  profes- 
sors and  librarians  of  Alexandria. 

Toward  the  close  of  the  second  century 
B.C.,  the  Romans  began  to  investigate  Greek 
education,  and  during  the  following  century 
the  Roman  methods  were  remodeled  along 
the  Greek  lines.  The  third  and  fourth  cen- 
turies A.D.  may  be  considered  the  golden  age 
of  professors.  By  the  close  of  the  fourth  cen- 
tury a  regular  system  had  been  formulated, 


which  was  accepted  everywhere  by  gentile 
and  Christian,  and  handed  down  from  gener- 
ation to  generation. 

II.  The  Mediceval  Period. — In  the  fifth  cen- 
tury A.D.,  the  successive  barbarian  invasions 
of  the  ancient  world  began,  and  the  old  order 
of  things  was  overturned.  The  Germans 
destroyed  the  gentile  world,  with  its  philoso- 
phers and  teachers.  Only  Christianity  and 
education  survived.  Education  was  in  the 
hands  of  Christians, but  it  suffered  prodigious 
losses.  Schools  and  libraries  were  destroyed ; 
scholars  decreased,  and  the  civilized  world 
steadily  shrank.  The  rich  and  cultivated 
provinces  of  Africa  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
Moslems  who  overran  Spain.  The  whole 
Eastern  empire  was  cut  off  from  the  West. 
In  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries  only  a  few 
vestiges  of  civilization  remained  in  Gaul. 
At  the  close  of  the  sixth  and  the  beginning 
of  the  seventh  century,  the  remote  province 
of  Ireland  was  the  only  point  where  studies 
and  scholarship  had  a  foothold,  and  from 
that  point  went  out  the  first  impulses  for  a 
revival  of  the  decaying  study  of  literature. 


England  was  the  first  to  respond  to  the  im- 
pulse, and  her  people  helped  the  Irish  to  carry 
it  to  the  Continent.  A  revival  of  encyclo- 
paedic learning  took  place  in  the  twelfth  and 
thirteenth  centuries,  and  led  to  an  investiga- 
tion and  study  of  what  may  be  called  the 
great  sources  of  knowledge. 

III.  The  Renaissance. — France  held  the  in- 
tellectual leadership  of  Europe  during  the 
Middle  Ages.  In  the  fourteenth  century,  it 
passed  to  Italy,  and  was  accompanied  by  so 
remarkable  an  intellectual  revolution  that  it 
is  called  a  "  new  birth" — renaissance.  This 
revival  was  marked  by  an  extraordinary 
enthusiasm  for  the  classics.  The  first  man 
of  the  Renaissance,  and  at  the  same  time  the 
first  modern  humanist,  was  Petrarch,  born  in 
the  year  1304,  whose  pioneer  work  in  clearing 
the  ground  of  the  "  new  way"  approached  the 

The  appointment  of  Manuel  Chrysoloras,  a 
Byzantine  scholar,  as  professor  of  Greek  in 
Florence,  in  1396,  brought  about  as  a  result  a 
true  revival  of  Greek  studies.  From  him  and 
from  his  pupils    descended  the    increasing 


generations  of  Greek  scholars,  who  during 
the  fifteenth  century  made  known  to  western 
Europe  the  great  originals  and  models  of  all 
classical  literary  art.  Every  portion  of  Ital- 
ian culture  was  profoundly  modified.  The 
great  discovery  of  printing  about  this  time 
gave  a  permanence  to  the  Renaissance.  The 
first  printed  Latin  book  to  be  sent  abroad 
was  Cicero's  De  Officiis,  published  in  1465. 
The  first  Greek  authors  to  be  printed  were 
Theocritus  and  ^sop,  which  appeared  to- 
gether about  1480. 

Humanism  gradually  triumphed  in  France, 
and  thence  conquered  Spain  early  in  the 
fifteenth  century.  It  made  slower  progress 
among  the  German  nations.  Although 
Germany  was  brought  into  frequent  political 
contact  with  Italy  during  the  whole  period 
of  Italian  humanism,  she  hardly  felt  its  in- 
fluence until  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  cen- 
tury, but  to-day  Germany  is  the  chief  seat  of 
classical  learning. 

IV.  PJiilological  Science  Period. — This  peri- 
od may  be  considered  as  embracing  the  pres- 
ent and  an  indefinite  portion  of  the  future. 


The  spread  of  philological  science  and  classi- 
cal learning  in  general,  it  may  be  claimed,  is 
universal  among  all  nations  making  any  pre- 
tence to  civilization, 

E.  S.  E. 
MAY,  i8(^^ 



Aby'dos.  A  city  of  Asia  opposite  Sestos  in  Eu- 
rope. Its  fame  rests  upon  the  loves  of  Hero 
and  Leander,  and  here  also  Xerxes  built  his 
bridge  of  boats  across  the  Hellespont.  Hero 
was  a  maiden  of  wondrous  beauty,  who  was 
dedicated  by  her  parents  to  Venus'  service. 
As  soon  as  she  was  old  enough,  she  spent  all 
her  time  in  the  temple,  ministering  to  the 
goddess,  or  in  a  lonely  tower  by  the  sea, 
where  she  lived  alone  with  her  aged  nurse. 
Leander,  deeply  smitten  with  the  charms  of 
Hero,  was  in  the  habit  of  swimming  across 
the  Hellespont,  she  displaying  a  signal  for 
him.  One  stormy  night,  while  attempting 
the  feat,  he  was  drowned.  Hero  saw  the 
body  the  next  morning  tossing  up  and  down 
in  the  waves  at  the  foot  of  the  tower.  In  her 
grief  she  threw  herself  into  the  sea  and  per- 
ished by  his  side.     Lord  Byron,  in  " The  Bride 


of  Abydos, "  thus  alludes  to  the  touching  in- 
cident : 

•'  The  winds  are  high  on  Helle's  wave, 
As  on  that  night  of  stormy  water, 
When  Love,  who  sent,  forgot  to  save 
The  young,  the  beautiful,  the  brave, 
The  lonely  hope  of  Sestos'  daughter." 

Aby  dos.  A  town  of  Egypt,  where  stood  the 
famous  temple  of  Osiris. 

Acade'mi'a.  A  place  surrounded  with  trees  near 
Athens,  belonging  to  Academus,  from  whom 
the  name  is  derived.  Here  Plato  opened  his 
school  of  philosophy,  and  from  this  every 
place  sacred  to  learning  has  ever  since  been 
called  Academia. 

Acha'tes.  -.^neas  and  Achates  were  friends. 
The  devotion  of  Achates  was  so  unselfish  and 
exemplary  that  Fidus  Achates  became  a 

Achelo  us.  The  son  of  Oceanus  and  Terra,  or 
Tethys,  god  of  the  river  of  the  same  name  in 
Epirus.  As  one  of  the  numerous  suitors  of 
Dejanira,  he  entered  the  lists  against  Her- 
cules, and  being  inferior,  changed  himself 
into  a  serpent,  and  afterwards  into  an  ox. 
Hercules  broke  off  one  of  his  horns  and  de- 
feated him,  after  which,  according  to  some, 
he  was  changed  into  a  river. 

Acheron.  To  separate  that  portion  of  Hades  re- 
served for  the  punishment  of  the  wicked, 
Pluto  surrounded  it  with  Phlegethon,  a  river 
of  fire,  while  the  Acheron,  a  deep  and  black 


stream,  had  to  be  passed  by  all  souls  before 
they  reached  Pluto's  throne  and  heard  his  de- 
cree. The  word  Acheron  is  also  used  to  sig- 
nify Hades  or  hell  itself. 

Achilles,  the  son  of  Peleus  and  Thetis,  was  the 
bravest  of  all  the  Greeks  in  the  Trojan  war. 
During  his  infancy.  Thetis  plunged  him  in 
the  Styx,  thus  making  every  part  of  his  body 
invulnerable  except  the  heel  by  which  she 
held  him.  To  prevent  him  from  going  to  the 
Trojan  war,  Thetis  sent  him  privately  to  the 
court  of  Lycomedes,  where  he  was  disguised 
in  a  .female  dress.  As  Troy  could  not  be 
taken  without  his  aid,  Ulysses  went  to  the 
court  of  Lycomedes  in  the  habit  of  a  mer- 
chant, and  exposed  jewels  and  arms  for  sale. 
Achilles,  choosing  the  arms,  discovered  his 
sex,  and  went  to  the  war.  Vulcan  made  him 
a  strong  suit  of  armor,  which  was  proof 
against  all  weapons.  He  was  deprived  by 
Agamemnon  of  his  favorite  Briseis,  and  for 
this  affront  he  would  not  appear  on  the  field 
till  the  death  of  Patroclus  impelled  him  to 
vengeance.  He  slew  Hector,  who  had  killed 
Patroclus,  and  tying  his  corpse  to  his  war-car, 
dragged  it  three  times  round  Troy.  He  is 
said  to  have  been  killed  by  Paris,  who  inflicted 
a  mortal  wound  in  his  vulnerable  heel  with 
an  arrow. 

Actae'on.  A  famous  huntsman,  son  of  Aristseus 
and  Autonoe,  daughter  of  Cadmus.  He  saw 
Diana  and  her  attendants  bathing,  for  which 


he  was  changed  into  a  stag  and  devoured  by 
his  own  dogs. 

Ac'tium.  A  town  and  promontory  of  Epirus, 
famous  for  the  naval  victory  which  Augustus 
obtained  over  Antony  and  Cleopatra,  b.c.  31. 

A'des  or  Hades,  The  god  of  hell  among  the 
Greeks  ;  the  same  as  the  Pluto  of  the  Latins. 
The  word  is  often  used  for  hell  itself  by  the 
ancient  poets  and  in  modern  writings. 

Adher'bal.  Son  of  Micipsa,  and  grandson  of 
Masinissa,  was  besieged  at  Cirta,  and  put  to 
death  by  Jugurtha,  after  vainly  imploring  the 
aid  of  Rome,  b.c.  112. 

Adme'tus.  Son  of  Pheres  and  Clymene,  king  of 
Pherse  in  Thessaly.  Apollo,  when  banished 
from  heaven,  is  said  to  have  tended  his  flocks 
for  nine  years. 

Ado'nis,  son  of  Cinyras  and  Myrrha  was  the  fa- 
vorite of  Venus.  He  was  fond  of  hunting, 
and  was  often  cautioned  not  to  hunt  wild 
beasts.  This  advice  he  slighted,  and  at  last 
was  mortally  wounded  by  a  wild  boar.  Venus 
changed  him  into  the  flower  anemone.  Pros- 
erpine is  said  to  have  restored  him  to  life,  on 
condition  that  he  should  spend  six  months  of 
the  year  with  her,  and  the  rest  of  the  year 
with  Venus.  This  implies  the  alternate  re- 
turn of  summer  and  winter.  Shakspeare,  in 
his  poem  "Venus  and  Adonis,"  thus  alludes 
to  the  changing  of  Adonis  into  a  flower  : — 

**  By  this  the  boy  that  by  her  side  lay  kill'd 
Was  melted  like  a  vapor  from  her  sight, 


And  in  his  blood,  that  on  the  ground  lay  spill'd, 

A  purple  flower  sprung  up,  chequer'd  with  white, 
Resembling  well  his  pale  cheeks,  and  the  blood 
Which  in  round  drops  upon  their  whiteness  stood," 

Adras'tus,  son  of  Talaus  and  Lysimache,  was 
king  of  Argos.  Polynices,  being  banished 
from  Thebes  by  his  brother  Eteocles,  fled  to 
Argos,  where  he  married  Argia,  daughter  of 
Adrastus.  The  king  assisted  his  son-in-law, 
and  marched  against  Thebes  with  an  army. 
He  was  defeated  with  great  slaughter,  and 
fled  to  Athens,  where  Theseus  gave  him  as- 
sistance, and  was  victorious.  Adrastus  died 
from  grief,  occasioned  by  the  death  of  his  son 

Adria'nus.  A  famous  emperor  of  Rome.  He  is 
represented  as  an  active,  learned,  warlike, 
and  austere  general.  He  went  to  Britain, 
where  he  built  a  wall  between  the  modern 
towns  of  Carlisle  and  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  to 
protect  the  Britons  from  the  incursions  of  the 

.^di'les.  Roman  magistrates,  who  had  the 
charge  of  all  buildings,  baths,  and  aqueducts, 
and  examined  weights  and  measures.  The 
office  of  an  -^dile  was  honorable,  and  the 
primary  step  to  a  more  distinguished  position 
in  the  State. 

.^'geus.  Kingof  Athens,  son  of  Pandion.  Being 
desirous  of  having  children,  he  went  to  con- 
sult the  oracle,  and  on  his  return  stopped  at 
the  court  of  Pittheus,  king  of  Troezene,  who 

t6  classical   dictionary 

gave  him  his  daughter  ^thra  in  marriage. 
He  directed  her,  if  she  had  a  son,  to  send  him 
to  Athens  as  soon  as  he  could  lift  a  stone  under 
which  he  had  concealed  his  sword,  ^thra 
became  mother  of  Theseus,  whom  she  sent 
to  Athens  with  his  father's  sword,  ^geus 
being  at  that  time  living  with  Medea,  the  di- 
vorced wife  of  Jason.  When  Theseus  came  to 
Athens.  Medea  attempted  to  poison  him,  but 
he  escaped  ;  and  upon  showing  JEgeus  the 
sword,  discovered  himself  to  be  his  son. 
When  Theseus  returned  from  Crete,  after  the 
death  of  the  Minotaur,  he  omitted  to  hoist  up 
white  sails  as  a  signal  of  success,  and  at  sight 
of  black  sails,  ^geus.  concluding  that  hjs  son 
was  dead,  threw  himself  into  the  sea,  which, 
as  some  suppose,  has  since  been  called  the 
^gean  Sea.     ^geus  died  b.c.  1235. 

.^'gis.  The  shield  of  Jupiter.  He  gave  it  to 
Pallas,  who  placed  Medusa's  head  on  it,  which 
turned  into  stones  all  those  who  gazed  at  it. 

/Egy'ptuSj  son  of  Belus,  and  brother  to  Danaus, 
gave  his  fifty  sons  in  marriage  to  the  fifty 
daughters  of  his  brother.  Danaus.  who  had 
established  himself  at  Argos  and  was  jealous 
of  his  brother,  obliged  all  his  daughters  to 
murder  their  husbands  on  the  first  night  of 
their  nuptials.  This  was  done,  Hypermnestra 
alone  sparing  her  husband  Lynceus.  ^gy- 
ptus  himself  was  killed  by  his  niece  Polyxena. 

^lia'nus  Claudius.  A  Roman  sophist  of  Prse- 
neste  in   the   reign    of  Adrian.      He  taught 


rhetoric  at  Rome.  He  wrote  treatises  on 
animals  in  seventeen  books,  and  on  various 
other  subjects  in  fourteen  books,  ^lian  died 
at  the  age  of  sixt5^  a.d.  140. 

iEne'as.  A  Trojan  prince,  son  of  Anchises  and 
Venus.  He  married  Creusa,  the  daughter  of 
Priam,  and  they  had  a  son  named  Ascanius. 
During  the  Trojan  war  ^neas  behaved  with 
great  valor  in  defence  of  Troy.  When  the 
city  was  in  flames  he  is  said  to  have  carried 
away  his  father  Anchises  on  his  shoulders, 
leading  his  son  Ascanius  by  the  hand,  his 
wife  following  them.  Subsequently  he  built 
a  fleet  of  twenty  ships,  with  which  he  set  sail 
in  quest  of  a  settlement.  He  was  driven  on 
the  coasts  of  Africa,  and  was  kindly  received 
by  Dido,  Queen  of  Carthage,  who  became 
enamored  with  him  ;  but  he  left  Carthage  by 
the  order  of  the  gods.  He  has  been  praised 
for  his  piety  and  his  submission  to  the  will  of 
the  gods;  the  term  "Pius"  is  generally  ap- 
pended to  his  name. 

.^ne'is.  The  ^neid,  a  grand  poem  by  Virgil, 
the  great  merit  of  which  is  well  known.  The 
author  has  imitated  the  style  of  Homer,  and 
is  by  some  thought  to  equal  him. 

./E'olus,  the  ruler  of  storms  and  winds,  was  the 
son  of  Hippotas.  He  reigned  over  ^olia. 
He  was  the  inventor  of  sails,  and  a  great  as- 
tronomer, from  which  the  poets  have  called 
him  the  god  of  wind. 

.£s'chines.  An  Athenian  orator  who  lived  about 


342  B.C.,  and  distinguished  himself  by  his 
rivalship  with  Demosthenes. 

iEs'chylus,  a  soldier  and  poet  of  Athens,  son  of 
Euphorion.  He  was  in  the  Athenian  army  at 
the  battles  of  Marathon,  Salamis.  and  Plataea  ; 
but  his  most  solid  fame  rests  on  his  writings. 
He  wrote  ninety  tragedies,  forty  of  which 
were  rewarded  with  a  public  prize.  He  was 
killed  by  the  fall  of  a  tortoise,  dropped  from 
the  beak  of  an  eagle  on  his  head,  k.c.  456. 

iEscula'pius,  son  of  Apollo  and  Coronis,  or  as 
some  say  of  Apollo  and  Larissa,  daughter  of 
Phlegias,  was  the  god  of  medicine.  He  mar- 
ried Epione,  and  they  had  two  sons,  famous 
for  their  skill  in  medicine.  Machaon  and  Po- 
dalirus  ;  of  their  four  daughters,  Hygeia,  god- 
dess of  health,  is  the  most  celebrated. 

iE'son,  son  of  Cretheus,  was  l)orn  at  the  same 
birth  as  Pelias.  He  succeeded  his  father  in 
the  kingdom  of  lolchos,  but  was  soon  exiled 
by  his  brother.  He  married  Alcimeda,  by 
whom  he  had  Jason,  whose  education  he  en- 
trusted to  Chiron.  ^Vhen  Jason  reached  man- 
hood he  demanded  his  father's  kingdom  from 
his  uncle,  who  gave  him  evasive  answers,  and 
persuaded  him  to  go  in  quest  of  the  Golden 
Fleece.  On  his  return  Jason  found  his  father 
very  infirm,  and  at  his  request  Medea  drew 
the  blood  from  ^son's  veins  and  refilled  them 
with  the  juice  of  certain  herbs,  which  restored 
the  old  man  to  the  vigor  of  youth, 

TEsopus.     A  Phrygian  philosopher  who,  origin- 


ally  a  slave,  procured  his  liberty  by  his  ge- 
nius. He  dedicated  his  fables  to  his  patron 
Croesus.  The  fables  which  we  have  now 
under  his  name  doubtless  are  a  collection  of 
fables  and  apologues  of  wits  before  and  after 
the  age  of  ^sop,  conjointly  with  his  own. 

Agamemnon,  king  of  Mycensc  and  Argos,  was 
brother  to  Menelaus,  and  son  of  Plisthenes, 
the  son  of  Atreus.  He  married  Clytemnestra, 
and  Menelaus  Helen,  both  daughters  of  Tyn- 
darus,  king  of  Sparta.  When  Helen  eloped 
with  Paris,  Agamemnon  was  elected  com- 
mander-in-chief of  the  Grecian  forces  invad- 
ing Troy. 

Agesila'us.  Of  the  family  of  the  Proclidse,  son 
of  Archidamus,  king  of  Sparta,  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded. He  made  war  against  Artaxerxes, 
king  of  Persia,  with  success,  but  in  the  midst 
of  his  conquests  he  was  called  home  to  oppose 
the  Athenians  and  Boeotians.  He  passed 
over  in  thirty  days  that  tract  of  country  which 
had  taken  up  a  whole  year  of  Xerxes'  expedi- 
tion. He  defeated  his  enemies  at  Coronea, 
but  sickness  interfered  with  his  conquests, 
and  the  Spartans  were  beaten  in  every  en- 
gagement till  he  again  appeared  at  their  head. 
He  died  362  years  b.c. 

Agrip  pa,  M.  Vipsanius.  A  celebrated  Roman 
who  obtained  a  victory  over  S.  Pompey,  and 
favored  the  cause  of  Augustus  at  the  battles 
of  Actium  and  Philippi,  where  he  behaved 
with  great  valor.     In  his  expeditions  in  Gaul 


and  Germany  he  obtained  several  victories, 
but  refused  the  honor  of  a  triumph,  and 
turned  his  attention  to  the  embellishment  of 
Rome  and  the  raising  of  magnificent  build- 
ings, among  them  the  Pantheon.  Augustus 
gave  him  his  daughter  Julia  in  marriage.  He 
died  universally  lamented,  at  Rome,  aged 
fifty-one,  B.C.  12. 

Agrip'pa.  A  son  of  Aristobulus,  grandson  of  the 
great  Herod.  He  was  popular  with  the  Jews, 
and  it  is  said  that  while  they  were  flattering 
him  with  the  appellation  of  god  he  was  struck 
with  death,  a.d.  43.  His  son  of  the  same 
name  was  with  Titus  at  the  siege  of  Jerusa- 
lem, and  died  a.d.  94.  It  was  before  him 
that  St.  Paul  pleaded.  There  were  a  number 
of  others  of  the  same  name,  but  of  less  celeb- 

A  jax,  son  of  Telamon  and  Periboea,  or  Eriboea, 
was  one  of  the  bravest  of  the  Greeks  in  the 
Trojan  war.  After  the  death  of  Achilles, 
Ajax  and  Ulysses  both  claimed  the  arms  of 
the  dead  hero,  which  were  given  to  Ulysses, 
Some  say  that  he  was  killed  in  battle  by 
Paris,  but  others  record  that  he  was  murdered 
by  Ulysses. 

Alari'cus.  A  famous  king  of  the  Goths  who  plun- 
dered Rome  in  the  reign  of  Honorius.  He 
was  greatly  respected  for  his  valor,  and  dur- 
ing his  reign  he  kept  the  Roman  empire  in 
continual  alarm.  He  died  after  a  reign  of 
twelve  years,  a.d.  410.     He  was  buried  in  the 


bed  of  a  river  which  had  been  turned  from  its 
course  for  the  reception  of  his  corpse,  in  order 
that  it  might  be  said  that  no  one  should  tread 
on  the  earth  where  he  reposed.  The  circum- 
stance is  thus  alluded  to  by  one  of  our  own 
poets : — 

"  But  ye  the  mountain  stream  shall  turn, 
And  lay  its  secret  channel  bare, 
And  hollow,  for  your  sovereign's  urn, 
A  resting-place  for  ever  there; 

"  Then  bid  its  everlasting  springs 
Flow  back  upon  the  king  of  kings; 
And  never  be  the  secret  said 
Until  the  deep  give  up  its  dead." 

Albion,  son  of  Neptune  and  Amphitrite,  came 
into  Britain,  where  he  established  a  kingdom, 
and  introduced  astrology  and  the  art  of  build- 
ing ships.  Great  Britain  is  called  "Albion" 
after  him. 

Alcae'us.  A  celebrated  lyric  poet  of  Mitylene  in 
Lesbos,  about  600  years  before  the  Christian 
era.  He  fled  from  a  battle,  and  the  armor 
in  which  he  left  the  field  was  hung  up  in  the 
temple  of  Minerva  as  a  monument  of  his  dis- 
grace. He  was  enamoured  of  Sappho.  Of 
his  works  only  a  few  fragments  remain. 

Alces'te  or  Alcestis,  daughter  of  Pelias,  married 
Admetus.  She,  with  her  sisters,  put  her 
father  to  death  that  he  might  be  restored  to 
youth  and  vigour  by  Medea,  who  had  prom- 
ised to  ettect  this  by  her  enchantments.     She, 


however,  refused  to  fulfil  her  promise,  on 
which  the  sisters  fled  to  Admetus,  who  mar- 
ried Alceste. 

Alcibi'ades.  An  Athenian  general,  famous  for 
his  enterprise,  versatile  genius,  and  natural 
foibles.  He  was  a  disciple  of  Socrates,  whose 
lessons  and  example  checked  for  a  while  his 
vicious  propensities.  In  the  Peloponnesian 
war  he  encouraged  the  Athenians  to  under- 
take an  expedition  against  Syracuse.  He 
died  in  his  forty-sixth  year.  B.C.  404. 

Alcme'na.  Daughter  of  Electrion,  king  of  Argos. 
Her  father  promised  her  and  his  crown  to 
Amphitryon  if  he  would  revenge  the  death  of 
his  sons  who  had  been  killed  by  the  Tele- 
boans.  In  the  absence  of  Amphitryon,  Jupi- 
ter assumed  his  form  and  visited  Alcmena, 
who,  believing  the  god  to  be  her  lover,  re- 
ceived him  with  joy.  Amphitryon  on  his  re- 
turn ascertained  from  the  prophet  Tiresias 
the  deception  which  had  been  practiced. 
After  the  death  of  Amphitryon,  Alcmena  mar- 
ried Rhadamanthus.  Hercules  was  the  son 
of  Jupiter  and  Alcmena. 

Alcy'one  or  Halcy'one,  daughter  of  ^olus,  mar- 
ried Ceyx,  who  was  drowned  as  he  was  going 
to  consult  the  oracle.  The  gods  apprised 
Alcyone  in  a  dream  of  her  husband's  fate, 
and  when  she  found  his  body  washed  ashore 
she  threw  herself  into  the  sea.  and  she  and 
her  husband  were  changed  into  birds. 

Alec  to.     One  of  the  Furies.     She  is  represented 


with  her  head   covered  with   serpents,    and 
breathing  vengeance,  war,  and  pestilence. 

Alexander,  surnamed  the  Great,  was  son  of 
Philip  and  Olympias.  He  was  born  b.c.  355, 
on  the  night  on  which  the  famous  temple  of 
Diana  at  Ephesus  was  burnt.  This  event, 
according  to  the  magicians,  was  a  prognostic 
of  his  future  greatness,  as  well  as  the  taming 
of  Bucephalus,  a  horse  which  none  of  the 
king's  attendants  could  manage.  Philip,  it 
is  recorded,  said,  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  that 
his  son  must  seek  another  kingdom,  as  that 
of  Macedonia  would  not  be  large  enough  for 
him.  He  built  a  town,  which  he  called  Alex- 
andria, on  the  Nile.  His  conquests  were  ex- 
tended to  India,  where  he  fought  with  Porus. 
a  powerful  king  of  the  country,  and  after  he 
had  invaded  Scythia.  he  retired  to  Babylon 
laden  with  spoils.  His  entry  into  the  city 
was  predicted  by  the  magicians  as  to  prove 
fatal  to  him.  He  died  at  Babylon  in  his 
thirty-second  year,  after  a  reign  of  twelve 
years  and  eight  months  of  continual  success, 
B.C.  323.  There  were  a  number  of  others  of 
the  same  name,  but  of  less  celebrity. 

Althae'a,  daughter  of  Thestius  and  Eurythemis, 
married  CEneus,  king  of  Calydon,  by  whom 
she  had  many  children,  among  them  being 
Meleager.  When  he  was  born  the  Parca;  put 
a  log  of  wood  on  the  fire,  saying,  as  long  as 
it  was  preserved  the  life  of  the  child  would  be 
prolonged.     The  mother  took  the  wood  froiij 


the  flames  and  preserved  it,  but  when  Melea- 
ger  killed  his  two  uncles,  Althaea,  to  revenge 
them,  threw  the  log  in  the  fire,  and  when  it 
was  burnt  Meleager  expired.  Althaea  then 
killed  herself. 

Amaryl'lis.  The  name  of  a  countrywoman  in 
Virgil's  Eclogues.  Some  commentators  have 
supposed  that  the  poet  spoke  of  Rome  under 
this  fictitious  name. 

Amaz'ones  or  Amazonides.  A  nation  of  famous 
women  who  lived  near  the  river  Thermodon 
in  Cappadocia.  All  their  lives  were  employed 
in  wars  and  manly  exercises.  They  founded 
an  extensive  empire  in  Asia  Minor  along  the 
shores  of  the  Euxine. 

Ambra'cia.  A  city  of  Epirus,  the  residence  of 
King  Pyrrhus.  Augustus,  after  the  battle  of 
Actium,  called  it  Nicopolis.  Lord  Byron  thus 
alludes  to  it  in  the  second  canto  of  "Childe 

"  Ambracia's  gulf  behold,  where  once  was  lost 
A  world  for  woman,  lovely,  harmless  thing  ! 
In  yonder  rippling  bay,  their  naval  host 
Did  many  a  Roman  chief  and  Asian  king 
To  doubtful  conflict,  certain  slaughter  bring." 

Amphiara'us,  son  of  Oicleus  and  Hypermnestra, 
was  at  the  chase  of  the  Calydonian  boar,  and 
accompanied  the  Argonauts  in  their  expedi- 
tion. He  was  famous  for  his  knowledge  of 

Amphic  tyon,    son    of    Deucalion    and     Pyrrha, 


reigned  at  Athens  after  Cranaus.  Some  say 
the  deluge  happened  in  his  age. 

Amphic'tyon,  the  son  of  Helenus,  who  first  es- 
tablished the  celebrated  Council  of  the  Am- 
phictyons,  composed  of  the  wisest  and  most 
virtuous  men  of  some  cities  of  Greece. 

Amphi'on,  son  of  Jupiter  and  Antiope.  He  cul- 
tivated poetry,  and  made  such  progress  in 
music  that  he  is  said  to  have  been  the  inven- 
tor of  it,  and  to  have  built  the  walls  of  Thebes 
by  the  sound  of  his  lyre. 

Amphitrite.  A  daughter  of  Oceanus  and  Tethys, 
who  married  Neptune.  She  is  sometimes 
called  Salatia.  She  was  mother  of  Triton,  a 
sea  deity. 

Amphitryon.  A  Theban  prince,  son  of  Alcaeus 
and  Hipponome.  His  sister  Anaxo  married 
Electryon,  king  of  Mycenae,  whose  sons  were 
killed  in  battle  by  the  Teleboans.  Electryon 
gave  his  daughter  Alcmena  to  Amphitryon 
for  avenging  the  death  of  his  sons. 

Anachar'sis,  a  Scythian  philosopher  592  years  b.  c.  , 
who,  on  account  of  his  wisdom,  temperance, 
and  knowledge,  has  been  called  one  of  the 
seven  wise  men.  He  has  rendered  himself 
famous  among  the  Ancients  by  his  writings, 
his  poems  on  war,  the  laws  of  the  Scythians, 

Anac'reon.  A  famous  lyric  poet  of  Teos,  in 
Ionia,  favored  by  Polycrates  and  Hippar- 
chus,  son  of  Philostratus  He  was  of  intem- 
perate habits  and  fond  of  pleasure.     Some  of 


his  odes  are  extant,  and  the  elegance  of  his 
poetry  has  been  the  admiration  of  ever}'  age 
and  country.  He  lived  to  the  age  of  eighty- 
five,  and  after  a  life  of  pleasure  was  choked 
with  a  grape-stone.  He  flourished  b.c.  532. 
The  Odes  have  been  translated  into  English 
by  Moore,  Cowley,  and  others. 

Anadyom'ene.  A  famous  painting  by  Apelles  of 
Venus  rising  from  the  sea. 

Anaxag  oras.  A  Clazomenian  philosopher,  who 
disregarded  wealth  and  honors  to  indulge 
his  fondness  for  meditation  and  philosophy. 
He  applied  himself  to  astronomy,  and  ob- 
tained a  knowledge  of  eclipses.  He  used  to 
say  he  preferred  a  grain  of  wisdom  to  heaps 
of  gold.  He  ^yas  accused  of  impiety  and 
condemned  to  die,  but  he  ridiculed  the  sen- 
tence, which  he  said  had  already  been  pro- 
nounced on  him  by  nature.  He  died  at  the 
age  of  seventy-two.  li.c.  42S. 

Anaxar'ete.  A  girl  of  Salamis,  who  so  arro- 
gantly rejected  the  addresses  of  Iphis.  a  youth 
of  ignoble  birth,  that  he  hanged  himself  at 
her  door.  .She  saw  the  spectacle  without 
emotion,  and  was  changed  into  stone.  Mr. 
Wiffen  makes  allusion  to  the  circumstance  in 
his  translation  of  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega: 

•'  Klse  tremble  at  the  fate  forlorn 
Of  Anaxarete,  who  spurn'd 

The  weeping  Iphis  from  her  gate; 

Who,  scoffing  long,  relenting  late, 
Was  to  a  statue  turn'd." 


Anchi'ses.  A  son  of  Capys  and  Themis.  He 
was  so  beautiful  that  Venus  came  down  from 
heaven  on  Mount  Ida  to  enjoy  his  company, 
^neas  was  the  son  of  Anchises  and  Venus, 
and  was  entrusted  to  the  care  of  Chiron  the 
Centaur.  When  Troy  was  taken,  Anchises 
had  become  so  infirm  that  ^neas  had  to  carry 
him  through  the  flames  upon  his  shoulders, 
and  thus  saved  his  life. 

Andromache.  Daughter  of  Eetion,  king  of 
Thebes.  She  married  Hector,  son  of  Priam, 
and  was  the  mother  of  Astyanax.  Her  part- 
ing with  Hector,  who  was  going  to  battle,  is 
described  in  the  Iliad,  and  has  been  deemed 
one  of  the  most  beautiful  passages  in  that 
great  work.  Pope's  translation  of  the  Iliad 
(book  6)  describes  with  great  pathos  and 
beauty  the  parting  of  Hector  from  his  wife 
and  child.  The  passage  is  too  long  for  quo- 
tation, but  this  quatrain  from  it  shows  the 
style : — 

"  Thus  having  spoke,  th'  illustrious  chief  of  Troy 
Stretch'd  his  fond  arms  to  clasp  the  lovely  boy; 
The  babe  clung  crying  to  his  nurse's  breast, 
Scared  at  the  dazzling  helm  and  nodding  crest."' 

Andromeda.  A  daughter  of  Cepheus,  king  of 
Ethiopia,  and  Cassiope.  She  was  promised 
in  marriage  to  Phineus  when  Neptune  drowned 
the  kingdom  and  sent  a  sea  monster  to  ravage 
the   country,   because   Cassiope   had   boasted 

.  .  that  she  was  fairer  than  Juno  and  the  Nerei- 
des.    The  oracle  of  Jupiter  Ammon  was  con- 


suited,  but  nothing  could  stop  the  resentment 
of  Neptune  except  the  exposure  of  Andromeda 
to  the  sea  monster.  She  was  accordingly  tied 
to  a  rock,  but  at  the  moment  that  the  monster 
was  about  to  devour  her,  Perseus,  returning 
•  from  the  conquest  of  the  Gorgons,  saw  her, 
and  was  captivated  with  her  beauty.  He 
changed  the  monster  into  a  rock  by  showing 
Medusa's  head,  and  released  Andromeda  and 
married  her. 
Anthropophagi.  A  people  of  Scythia  who  fed 
on  human  flesh.  They  lived  near  the  country 
of  the  Messagetie.  Shakspeare  makes  Othello, 
in  his  speech  to  the  Senate,  allude  to  the 
Anthropophagi  thus  :— 

"  The  cannibals  that  each  other  eat, 
The  Anthropophagi,  and  men  whose  heads 
Do  grow  beneath  their  shoulders." 

Antigone.  A  daughter  of  CEdipus,  king  of 
Thebes.  She  buried,  by  night,  her  brother 
Polynices,  against  the  orders  of  Creon,  who 
ordered  her  to  be  buried  alive.  She,  how- 
ever, killed  herself  on  hearing  of  the  sentence. 
The  death  of  Antigone  is  the  subject  of  one 
of  the  finest  tragedies  of  Sophocles. 

Antig'onus.  One  of  Alexander's  generals,  who, 
on  the  division  of  the  provinces  after  the 
king's  death,  received  Pamphylia,  Lycia,  and 
Phrygia.  Eventually  his  power  became  so 
great  that  Ptolemy,  Seleucus,  Cassander,  and 
Lysimachus   combined  to  destroy  him.     He 


gained  many  victories  over  them,  but  at  last 
was  killed  in  battle  at  the  age  of  eighty,  b.c. 
301.  There  were  others  of  the  same  name, 
but  much  less  conspicuous. 

Antin'ous.  A  youth  of  Bithynia  of  whom  the 
emperor  Adrian  was  so  extremely  fond  that, 
at  his  death,  he  erected  a  temple  to  him,  and 
wished  it  to  be  believed  that  he  had  been 
changed  into  a  constellation. 

Anti'ochus,  surnamed  Soter,  was  son  of  Seleucus 
and  king  of  Syria.  He  made  a  treaty  of  alli- 
ance with  Ptolemy  Philadelphus,  king  of 
Egypt.  He  wedded  his  stepmother  Stratonice. 
He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Antiochus  II. , 
who  put  an  end  to  the  war  which  had  begun 
with  Ptolemy,  and  married  his  daughter  Ber- 
enice, but  being  already  married  to  Laodice, 
she,  in  revenge,  poisoned  him.  Antiochus, 
the  third  of  that  name,  surnamed  the  Great, 
was  king  of  Syria,  and  reigned  thirty-six 
years.  He  was  defeated  by  Ptolemy  Philo- 
pater  at  Raphia.  He  conquered  the  greater 
part  of  Greece,  and  Hannibal  incited  him  to 
enter  on  a  crusade  against  Rome,  He  was 
killed  187  years  before  the  Christian  era.  An- 
tiochus Epiphanes,  the  fourth  of  the  name, 
was  king  of  Syria  after  his  brother  Seleucus. 
He  behaved  with  cruelty  to  the  Jews.  He 
reigned  eleven  years,  and  died  unregretted. 
There  were  many  others  of  the  same  name  of 
less  note. 

Anti'ope,  daughter  of  Nycteus,  king  of  Thebes, 


and"  Polyxo,  was  beloved  by  Jupiter.'  "Am* 
phion  and  Tethus  were  her  offspring. 

Antip'ater,  son  of  lolaus,  was  a  soldier  under 
King  Philip,  and  raised  to  the  rank  of  a 
general  under  Alexander  the  Great.  When 
Alexander  went  to  invade  Asia,  he  left  Antip- 
ater  supreme  governor  of  Macedonia.  He 
has  been  suspected  of  giving  poison  to  Alex- 
ander to  advance  himself  in  power. 

Antoninus,  surnamed  Pius,  was  adopted  by  the 
Emperor  Adrian,  whom  he  succeeded.  He 
was  remarkable  for  all  the  virtues  forming  a 
perfect  statesman,  philosopher,  and  king.  He 
treated  his  subjects  with  affability  and  hu- 
manity, and  listened  with  patience  to  every 
complaint  brought  before  him.  He  died  in 
his  seventy-fifth  year,  after  a  reign  of  twenty- 
three  years,  A.  D.  i6o. 

Anto'nius,  Marcus.  Mark  Antony,  the  triumvir, 
distinguished  himself  by  his  ambitious  views. 
When  Julius  Cassar  was  killed  in  the  senate 
house,  Antony  delivered  an  oration  over  his 
body,  the  eloquence  of  which  is  recorded  in 
Shakspeare's  tragedy  of  Julius  Caesar.  An- 
tony had  married  Fulvia,  whom  he  repudi- 
ated to  marry  Octavia,  the  sister  of  Augustus. 
He  fought  by  the  side  of  Augustus  at  the  bat- 
tle of  Philippi,  against  the  murderers  of  Julius 
Caesar.  Subsequently  he  became  enamored 
with  Cleopatra,  the  renowned  queen  of  Egypt, 
and  repudiated  Octavia  to  marry  her.  He 
was  utterly  defeated  at  the  battle  of  Actiura, 


f  :  •  and  stabbed  himself.  He  died  m  -the  fifty - 
sixth  year  of  his  age,  r..  <  .  30.  Shakspeare, 
in  his  noble  tragedy— Antony  and  Cleopatra, 
—makes  Antony  appeal  to  his  attendant, 
Eros,  to  slay  him,  who  refuses,  when  Antony 
falls  on  his  own  sword.  The  reader  is  re- 
ferred to  the  fourth  act  of  the  play,  where 
Antony,  defeated  and  heart-broken,  addresses 
his  attendant : 

"  Unarm,  Eros;  the  long  day's  task  is  done, 
And  we  must  sleep." 

Anto  nius,  Ju  lius,son  of  the  famous  triumvir  An- 
tony, by  Fulvia,  was  consul  with  Paulus 
Fabius  Maximus.  He  was  surnamed  Afri- 
canus,  and  put  to  death  by  order  of  Augustus, 
but  some  say  he  killed  himself. 

Anto'nius,  M.  Gni  pho.  A  poet  of  Gaul  who 
taught  rhetoric  at  Rome.  Cicero  and  other 
illustrious  men  frequented  his  school.  There 
were  a  number  of  others  of  the  same  name, 
but  of  less  repute. 

Apelles.  A  celebrated  painter  of  Cos,  or,  as 
others  say,  of  Ephesus  ;  son  of  Pithius.  He 
lived  in  the  age  of  Alexander  the  Great,  who 
forbade  any  one  but  Apelles  to  paint  his  por- 
trait. He  was  so  absorbed  in  his  profession 
that  he  never  allowed  a  day  to  pass  without 
employing  himself  at  his  art ;  hence  the 
proverb  of  Nulla  dies  sine  lined.  His  most 
perfect  picture  was  Venus  Anadyomene, 
which  was  not  quite  finished  when  he  died. 


He  painted  a  picture  in  which  a  horse  was  a 
prominent  feature,  and  so  correctly  was  it 
delineated  that  a  horse  passing  by  it  neighed, 
supposing  it  to  be  alive.  He  was  ordered  by 
Alexander  to  paint  a  portrait  of  one  of 
his  favorites — Campaspe.  Apelles  became 
enamored  with  her  and  married  her.  He 
only  put  his  name  to  three  of  his  pictures — a 
sleeping  Venus,  Venus  Anadyomene,  and  an 
Alexander.  The  proverb,  Ne  siitor  ultra 
crepidaifi,  has  been  used  in  reference  to  him 
by  some  writers. 

Aphrodite.  The  Grecian  name  for  Venus,  from 
the  Greek  word  a<^poQ,  froth,  because  Venus  is 
said  to  have  been  born  from  the  froth  of  the 

Apic'ius.  A  famous  gourmand  in  Rome.  There 
were  three  of  this  name,  all  noted  for  their 
voracious  appetites. 

A'pis.  One  of  the  ancient  kings  of  Peloponnesus, 
son  of  Phoroneus  and  Laodice.  Some  say  that 
Apollo  was  his  father,  and  that  he  was  king 
of  Argos.  whilst  others  called  him  king  of 
Sicyon,  and  fix  the  time  of  his  reign  above 
200  years  earlier.  Varro  and  others  have  sup- 
posed that  Apis  went  to  Egypt  with  a  colon}'- 
of  Greeks,  and  that  he  civilized  the  inhabitants 
and  polished  their  manners,  for  which  they 
made  him  a  god  after  death,  and  paid  divine 
honors  to  him  under  the  name  of  Serapis. 

Apis.  A  god  of  the  Egyptians,  worshiped 
under  the  form  of  an  ox.     Some  say  that  Isis 


and  Osiris  are  the  deities  worshiped  under 
this  name,  because  they  taught  the  Egyptians 

Apollo.  Son  of  Jupiter  and  Latona;  called  also 
Phcebus.  He  was  the  god  of  the  fine  arts 
and  the  reputed  originator  of  music,  poetry, 
and  eloquence.  He  had  received  from  Jupiter 
the  power  of  knowing  futurity,  and  his  oracles 
were  in  repute  everywhere.  As  soon  as  he 
was  born  he  destroyed  with  his  arrows  the 
serpent  Python,  which  Juno  had  sent  to  per- 
secute Latona  ;  hence  he  was  called  Pythius. 
He  was  not  the  inventor  of  the  lyre,  as  some 
have  supposed,  but  it  was  given  to  him  by 
Mercury,  who  received  in  return  the  famous 
,  Caduceus.  He  received  the  surnames  of 
Phoebus,  Delius.  Cynthius,  Paean,  Delphicus, 
etc.  He  is  in  sculpture  generally  represented 
as  a  handsome  young  man  with  a  bow  in  his 
hand,  from  which  an  arrow  has  just  been  dis- 

Appianus.  An  historian  of  Alexandria,  who 
flourished  ad.  123,  His  Universal  History, 
which  consisted  of  twenty-four  books,  was  a 
history  of  all  the  nations  conquered  by  the 

Ap'pius  Clau'dius.  A  decemvir  who  obtained  his 
power  by  force  and  oppression.  He  grossly 
insulted  Virginia,  whom  her  father  killed  to 
save  her  from  the  power  of  the  tyrant. 

Arcadia.  A  district  of  Peloponnesus,  which  has 
been  much  extolled  by  the  poets.  It  was 


famous  for  its  mountains.  The  inhabitants 
were  for  the  most  part  shepherds,  who  lived 
upon  acorns.  They  were  skillful  warriors  and 
able  musicians.  Pan  lived  chiefly  among 

Archilochus.  A  poet  of  Paros,  who  wr-ote  ele- 
gies, satires,  odes,  and  epigrams.  He  lived 
B.C.  68 5. 

Archimedes.  A  famous  geometrician  of  Syra- 
cuse who  invented  a  machine  of  glass  that 
represented  the  motion  of  the  heavenly  bodies. 
When  Marcellus,  the  Roman  consul,  besieged 
Syracuse,  Archimedes  constructed  machines 
which  suddenly  raised  into  the  air  the  ships 
of  the  enemy,  which  then  fell  into  the  sea  and 
were  sunk.  He  also  set  fire  to  the  ships  with 
burning-glasses.  When  the  enemy  were  in 
possession  of  the  town,  a  soldier,  not  know- 
ing who  he  was,  killed  him.  B.C.  212. 

Arethu'sa,  a  nymph  of  Elis,  daughter  of  Oceanus, 
and  one  of  Diana's  attendants.  As  she  re- 
turned one  day  from  hunting  she  bathed  in 
the  Alpheus  stream.  The  god  of  the  river 
was  enamored  of  her,  and  pursued  her  over 
the  mountains,  till  Arethusa,  ready  to  sink 
from  fatigue,  implored  Diana  to  change  her 
into  a  fountain,  which  the  goddess  did. 

Ar'go.  The  name  of  the  famous  ship  which  car- 
ried Jason  and  his  companions  to  Colchis, 
when  they  went  to  recover  the  Golden  Fleece. 

Argonau'tae.  The  Argonauts,  those  ancient  he- 
roes who  went  with  Jason  in   the  Argo  to 


Colchis  to  recover  the  Golden  Fleece,  about 
seventy-nine  years  before  the  capture  of  Troy, 
The  number  of  the  Argonauts  is  not  exactly 

Ar'gus.  A  son  of  Arestor,  whence  he  is  some- 
times called  Arestorides.  He  had  a  hundred 
eyes,  of  which  only  two  were  asleep  at  one 
time.  Juno  set  him  to  watch  lo.  whom 
Jupiter  had  changed  into  a  heifer,  but  Mer- 
cury, by  order  of  Jupiter,  slew  him.  by  lulling 
all  his  eyes  to  sleep  with  the  notes  of  the  lyre. 
Juno  put  the  eyes  of  Argus  in  the  tail  of  the 
peacock,  a  bird  sacred  to  her. 

Ariad  ne,  daughter  of  Minos,  second  king  of 
Crete,  and  Pasiphse.  fell  in  love  with  Theseus, 
who  was  shut  up  in  the  labyrinth  to  be  de- 
voured by  the  Minotaur.  She  gave  Theseus 
a  clue  of  thread  by  which  he  extricated  him- 
self from  the  windings  of  the  labyrinth.  After 
he  had  conquered  the  Minotaur  he  married 
her,  but  after  a  time  forsook  her.  On  this, 
according  to  some  authorities,  she  hanged 
herself.  According  to  other  waiters,  after 
being  abandoned  by  Theseus.  Bacchus  loved 
her,  and  gave  her  a  crown  of  seven  stars, 
which  were  made  a  constellation. 

Ari'on.  A  famous  lyric  poet  and  musician,  son 
of  Cyclos  of  Methymna  in  Lesbos.  He  went 
into  Italy  with  Periander.  tyrant  of  Corinth, 
where  he  gained  much  wealth  by  his  profes- 
sion. Afterward  he  wished  to  revisit  the 
place  of  his  nativity,  and  he  embarked  in  a 


ship,  the  sailors  of  which  resolved  to  kill  him 
for  the  riches  he  had  with  him.  Arion  en- 
treated them  to  listen  to  his  music,  and  as 
soon  as  he  had  finished  playing  he  threw  him- 
self into  the  sea.  A  number  of  dolphins  had 
been  attracted  by  the  sweetness  of  his  music, 
and  it  is  said  that  one  of  them  carried  him 
safely  on  its  back  to  T^narus.  whence  he  went 
to  the  court  of  Periander,  who  ordered  all  the 
sailors  to  be  crucified. 

Aristae'us.  Son  of  Apollo  and  Cyrene,  famous 
for  his  fondness  for  hunting.  He  married 
Autonoe,  the  daughter  of  Cadmus,  Actaeon 
being  their  son.  He  was  after  death  wor- 
shiped as  a  demigod. 

Aristar  chus.  A  celebrated  grammarian  of 
Samos,  disciple  of  Aristophanes.  He  lived 
the  greatest  part  of  his  life  at  Alexandria. 
.He  wrote  about  800  commentaries  on  different 
authors.  He  died  in  his  seventy-second  year, 
B.C.  157- 

Aristi'des.  A  celebrated  Athenian,  son  of  Lysi- 
machus,  in  the  age  of  Themistocles,  whose 
great  temperance  and  virtue  procured  for  him 
the  name  of  the  "Just."  He  was  rival  to 
Themistocles,  by  whose  influence  he  was  ban- 
ished for  ten  years,  i?.c.  484.  He  was  at  the 
battle  of  Salamis,  and  was  appointed  to  be 
chief  commander  with  Pausanias  against 
Mardonius,  whom  they  defeated  at  Plataia. 

Aristip'pus,  the  elder,  a  philosopher  of  Cyrene,  a 
disciple  of  Socrates,  and  founder  of  the  Cy- 
renaic  sect. 


Aristogi'ton  and  Harmo'dius.  Two  celebrated 
friends  of  Athens,  who,  by  their  joint  efforts, 
delivered  their  country  from  the  tyranny  of 
the  Pisistratidse,  B.C.  510. 

Aristophanes.  A  celebrated  comic  poet  of 
Athens,  son  of  Philip  of  Rhodes.  He  wrote 
fifty-four  comedies,  of  which  eleven  have 
come  down  to  us.  He  lived  b.c.  434.  and 
lashed  the  vices  of  the  age  with  a  masterly 

Aristof  eles.  A  famous  philosopher,  son  of  Ni- 
comachus.  born  at  Stagira.  He  went  to 
Athens  to  hear  Plato's  lectures,  where  he 
soon  signalized  himself  by  his  genius.  He 
has  been  called  by  Plato  the  philosopher  of 
truth,  and  Cicero  complimented  him  for  his 
eloquence,  fecundity  of  thought,  and  univer- 
sal knowledge.  He  died  in  his  sixty-third 
year.  b.c.  322.  As  he  expired  he  is  said  to 
have  exclaimed  :  Causa  caiisarian  miserere 
mei,  which  sentence  has  since  become  famous, 
and  is  by  some  attributed  to  Cicero.  The 
term  Stagirite  has  been  applied  to  Aristotle 
from  the  name  of  his  birthplace.  Pope,  in 
his  "Essay  on  Criticism,"  thus  alludes  to  him 
under  this  name  : — 

'*  And  rules  as  strict  his  labor'd  work  confine, 
As  if  the  Stagirite  o'erlooked  each  line." 

Artaxerx'es  the  First  succeeded  to  the  kingdom 
of  Persia  after  Xerxes.  He  made  war  against 
the  Bactrians,  and  reconquered  Egypt,  which 


had  revolted.     He   was   remarkable   for  his 
equity  and  moderation. 

Artaxerx'es  the  Second.  King  of  Persia,  sur- 
named  Mnemon.  His  brother  Cyrus  endeav- 
ored to  make  himself  king  in  his  place,  and 
marched  against  his  brother  at  the  head  of 
100,000  Barbarians  and  13,000  Greeks.  He 
was  opposed  by  Artaxerxes  with  a  large  army, 
and  a  bloody  battle  was  fought  at  Cunaxa, 
in  which  Cyrus  was  killed  and  his  forces 

Artemis.  The  Greek  name  of  Diana.  Her  festi- 
vals, called  Artemesia,  were  celebrated  in 
several  parts  of  Greece,  particularly  at  Delphi. 

Asca'nius,  son  of  ^neas  and  Creusa,  was  saved 
from  the  flames  of  Troy  by  his  father,  whom 
he  accompanied  in  his  voyage  to  Italy.  He 
was  afterward  called  lulus. 

Aspa'sia.  Daughter  of  Axiochus,  born  at  Meli- 
tus.  She  came  to  Athens,  where  she  taught 
eloquence.  Socrates  was  one  of  her  scholars. 
She  so  captivated  Pericles  by  her  accomplish- 
ments that  he  made  her  his  wife.  The  con- 
duct of  Pericles  and  Aspasia  greatly  corrupted 
the  morals  of  the  Athenians,  and  caused 
much  dissipation  in  the  State. 

Aspa'sia.  A  daughter  of  Hermotimus  of  Phocaea, 
famous  for  her  personal  beauty.  She  was 
priestess  of  the  sun,  and  became  mistress  to 

Astar'te.  A  powerful  divinity  of  Syria,  the  same 
as  the  Venus  of   the    Greeks.      She    had    a 


famous  temple  at  Hierapolis  in  Syria,  which 
was  attended  by  300  priests, 

Astrae'a.  A  daughter  ©f  Astrseus,  king  of  Arca- 
dia, or,  according  to  others,  daughter  of  Titan 
and  Aurora.  Some  make  her  daughter  of 
Jupiter  and  Themis.  She  was  called  Jus-tice, 
of  which  virtue  she  was  the  goddess. 

Asty'anax.  A  son  of  Hector  and  Andromache. 
He  was  very  j^oung  when  the  Greeks  besieged 
Troy,  and  when  the  city  was  taken  his  mother 
saved  him  in  her  arms  from  the  flames.  Ac- 
cording to  Euripides  he  was  killed  by  Men- 

Atalan'ta.  Daughter  of  Schoeneus,  king  of 
Scyros.  According  to  some  she  was  the 
daughter  of  Jasus,  or  Jasius,  and  Clymene, 
but  others  say  that  Menalion  was  her  father. 
She  determined  to  live  in  c-elibacy,  but  her 
beauty  gained  her  many  admirers,  and  to  free 
herself  from  their  importunities  she  proposed 
to  run  a  race  with  them.  As  she  was  almost  in- 
vincible in  running,  her  suitors,  who  entered 
the  lists  against  her,  were  defeated,  till  Hip- 
pomenes,  the  son  of  Macareus,  proposed  him- 
self as  an  admirer.  Venus  gave  him  three 
golden  apples  from  the  garden  of  the  Hesper- 
ides,  and  with  these  cDucealed  about  him  he 
entered  the  lists  to  race  against  Atalanta.  As 
the  race  proceeded  he  dropped  the  apples, 
which  she  stopped  to  pick  up,  thus  ena  ng 
Hippomenes  to  arrive  first  at  the  goal,  and 
obtain  her  in  marriage. 


A'te.  Daughter  of  Jupiter,  and  goddess  of  all 
evil.  She  raised  such  discord  amongst  the 
gods  that  Jupiter  banished  her  from  heaven, 
and  sent  her  to  dwell  on  earth,  where  she 
incited  mankind  to  evil  thoughts  and  actions. 

Athana'sius.  A  bishop  of  Alexandria,  celebrated 
for  his  determined  opposition  to  Arius  and  his 
doctrines.  He  died  a.d.  373,  after  filling  the 
archiepiscopal  chair  for  forty-seven  years. 
The  famous  creed  which  is  named  after  him 
is  no  longer  supposed  to  have  been  written  by 
him,  and  its  authorship  remains  in  doubt. 

Atlas.  One  of  the  Titans,  son  of  lapetus  and 
Clymene.  He  married  Pleione,  daughter  of 
Oceanus  (or  of  Hesperis  according  to  some 
writers).  He  had  seven  daughters,  who  were 
called  the  Atlantides. 

A'treus.  A  son  of  Pelops  and  Hippodamia,  was 
king  of  Mycenae.  His  brother  Chrysippus 
was  of  disgraceful  birth,  and  Hippodamia 
wished  to  get  rid  of  him,  and  urged  Atreus 
and  another  of  her  sons,  Thyestes,  to  murder 
him,  which,  on  their  refusal,  she  did  herself. 
Atreus  retired  to  the  court  of  Eurystheus, 
king  of  Argos,  and  succeeded  to  his  throne. 

At  ticus,  T.  Pomponius.  A  celebrated  Roman 
knight,  to  whom  Cicero  wrote  a  number  of 
letters,  containing  the  general  history  of  the 
age.  He  retired  to  Athens,  where  he  endeared 
himself  to  the  citizens,  who  erected  statues  to 
him  in  commemoration  of  his  virtues.  He 
died  at  the  age  of  seventy-seven,  B.C.  32. 


At'tila.  A  celebrated  king  of  the  Huns,  who  in- 
vaded the  Roman  empire  in  the  reign  of  Va- 
lentinian,  with  an  army  of  half  a  million  of 
men.  He  laid  waste  the  provinces,  and 
marched  on  Rome,  but  retreated  on  being 
paid  a  large  sum  of  money.  He  called  him- 
self the  "Scourge  of  God,"  and  died  a.d,  453, 
of  an  effusion  of  blood,  on  the  night  of  his 

Augustus,  Octavia'nus  Caesar,  emperor  of 
Rome,  was  son  of  Octavius,  a  senator,  and 
Accia,  sister  to  Julius  Csesar.  He  was  asso- 
ciated in  the  triumvirate  with  Antony  and 
Lepidus,  and  defeated  the  armies  of  Brutus 
and  Cassius  at  Philippi.  Octavia,  the  sister 
of  Augustus,  married  Antony  after  the  death 
of  his  wife  Fulvia.  Octavia,  however,  was 
slighted  for  the  charms  of  Cleopatra,  which 
incensed  Augustus,  who  took  up  arms  to 
avenge  the  wrongs  of  his  sister,  and  at  the 
great  battle  of  Actium  (b.c.  31),  the  forces  of 
Antony  and  Cleopatra  suffered  a  disastrous 

Aurelia'nus,  emperor  of  Rome,  was  austere  and 
cruel  in  the  execution  of  the  laws  and  in  his 
treatment  of  his  soldiers.  He  was  famous  for 
his  military  character,  and  his  expedition 
against  Zenobia,  queen  of  Palmyra,  gained 
him  great  honors.  It  is  said  that  in  his  vari- 
ous battles  he  killed  800  men  with  his  own 
hand.  He  was  assassinated  near  Byzantium, 
A.D.  275. 


Aurel'lius,  M.  Antoninus,  surnamed  "the  philos- 
opher," possessed  all  the  virtues  which  should 
adorn  the  character  of  a  prince.  He  raised  to 
the  imperial  dignity  his  brother  L.  Verus, 
whose  dissipation  and  voluptuousness  were  as 
conspicuous  as  the  moderation  of  the  philos- 
opher. During  their  reign  the  Quadi,  Par- 
thians,  and  Marcomanni  were  defeated. 
Verus  died  of  apoplexy,  and  Antoninus  sur- 
vived him  eight  years,  dying  in  his  sixty -first 
year,  after  a  reign  of  nineteen  years  and  ten 

Auro'ra.  A  goddess,  daughter  of  Hyperion  and 
Thia  or  Thea.  She  is  generally  represented 
by  the  poets  as  sitting  in  a  chariot  and  open- 
ing with  her  fingers  the  gates  of  the  east, 
pouring  dew  on  the  earth,  and  making  the 
flowers  grow.     The  Greeks  call  her  Eos. 

Bacchus  was  son  of  Jupiter  and  Semele,  the 
daughter  of  Cadmus.  He  was  the  god  of 
wine,  and  is  generally  represented  crowned 
with  vine  leaves.  He  is  said  to  have  married 
Ariadne  after  she  had  been  forsaken  by  The- 

Belisa'rius.  A  celebrated  general  who,  in  the 
reign  of  Justinian,  emperor  of  Constantinople, 
renewed  the  victories  which  had  rendered  the 
first  Romans  so  distinguished.  He  died, 
after  a  life  of  glory,  suffering  from  royal 
ingratitude,  565  years  before  the  Christian 


Beller'ophon,  son  of  Glaucus,  king  of  Ephyre, 
and  Eurymede,  was  at  first  called  Hipponous. 
He  was  sent  by  lobates,  king  of  Lycia,  to 
conquer  the  monster  Chimsera.  Minerva  as- 
sisted him  in  the  expedition,  and  by  the  aid 
of  the  winged  horse  Pegasus  he  conquered 
the  monster  and  returned  victorious.  After 
sending  him  on  other  dangerous  adventures, 
lobates  gave  him  his  daughter  in  marriage 
and  made  him  successor  to  his  throne. 

Bello'na,  goddess  of  war,  was  daughter  of  Phorcys 
and  Ceto ;  called  by  the  Greeks  Enyo,  and  is 
often  confounded  with  Minerva.  She  pre- 
pared the  chariot  of  Mars  when  he  was  going 
to  war,  and  appeared  in  battles  armed  with  a 
whip  to  animate  the  combatants,  and  holding 
a  torch. 

Be'lus,  one  of  the  most  ancient  kings  of  Babylon, 
about  1800  years  before  the  age  of  Semiramis, 
was  made  a  god  after  death,  and  was  wor- 
shiped by  the  Assyrians  and  Babylonians. 
He  was  supposed  to  be  the  son  of  the  Osiris 
of  the  Egyptians.  The  temple  of  Belus  was 
the  most  ancient  and  magnificent  in  the 
world,  and  was  said  to  have  been  originally 
the  tower  of  Babel. 

Berenice.  A  daughter  of  Philadelphus,  who 
married  Antiochus,  king  of  Syria,  after  he 
had  divorced  his  former  wife  Laodice. 

Bereni'ce.  The  mother  of  Agrippa,  whose  name 
occurs  in  the  history  of  the  Jews  as  daughter- 
in-law   of   Herod  the   Great.     A  number  of 



others  of  minor  celebrity  were  known  by  the 
same  name, 
Bi'on.  A  philosopher  of  Scythia  who  rendered 
himself  famous  for  his  knowledge  of  poetry, 
music,  and  philosophy.  Another  of  the  same 
name  was  a  Greek  poet  of  Smyrna  who  wrote 
pastorals.  He  was  a  friend  of  Moschus,  who 
says  that  he  died  by  poison  about  300  years 


Boadice'a.  A  famous  British  queen  who  rebelled 
against  the  Romans  and  was  defeated,  on 
which  she  poisoned  herself.  Her  cruel  treat- 
ment by  the  Romans  is  the  subject  of  an  ode 
by  Cowper. 

Bo'reas.  The  name  of  the  north  wind  blowing 
from  the  Hyperborean  mountains.  According 
to  the  poets,  he  was  son  of  Astrseus  and 
Aurora.  He  was  passionately  fond  of  Hya- 

Bren'nus,  A  general  of  the  Galli  Senones,  who 
entered  Italy,  defeated  the  Romans,  and 
marched  into  the  city.  The  Romans  fled  into 
the  Capitol,  and  left  the  city  in  possession  of 
the  enemy.  The  Gauls  climbed  the  Tarpeian 
rock  in  the  night,  and  would  have  taken  the 
Capitol  had  not  the  Romans  been  awakened 
by  the  cackling  of  some  geese,  on  which  they 
roused  themselves  and  repelled  the  enemy. 

Bri'a'reus.  A  famous  giant,  son  of  Ccelus  and 
Terra.  He  had  a  hundred  hands  and  fifty 
heads,  and  was  called  by  men  by  the  name  of 


Brutus,  L.  Junius.  Son  of  M.  Junius  and  Tar- 
quinia.  When  Lucretia  killed  herself,  b  c. 
509,  in  consequence  of  the  brutality  of  Tar- 
quin,  Brutus  snatched  the  dagger  from  the 
wound  and  swore  upon  the  reeking  blade  im- 
mortal hatred  to  the  royal  family,  and  made 
the  people  swear  they  would  submit  no  longer 
to  the  kingly  authority.  His  sons  conspired 
to  restore  the  Tarquins,  and  were  tried  and 
condemned  before  their  father,  who  himself 
attended  their  execution.  Mr.  John  Howard 
Payne,  the  American  dramatist,  has  written 
a  tragedy,  of  which  Brutus  is  the  hero. 

Bru'tus,  Mar  cus  Ju  nius,  father  of  Caesar's  mur- 
derer, followed  the  part)'  of  Marius,  and  was 
conquered  by  Pompey,  by  whose  orders  he 
was  put  to  death. 

Bru'tus,  Mar  cus  Ju  nius,  the  destroyer  of  Caesar, 
conspired,  with  many  of  the  most  illustrious. 
citizens  of  Rome,  against  Caesar,  and  stabbed 
him  in  Pompey 's  Basilica.  The  tumult  fol- 
lowing the  murder  was  great,  but  the  con- 
spirators fled  to  the  Capitol,  and  by  proclaim- 
ing freedom  and  liberty  to  the  populace,  for 
the  time  established  tranquillity.  Antony, 
however,  soon  obtained  the  popular  ear,  and 
the  murderers  were  obliged  to  leave  Rome, 
Brutus  retired  into  Greece,  where  he  gained 
many  friends.  He  was  soon  pursued  by  An- 
tony, who  was  accompanied  by  the  young 
Octavius.  The  famous  battle  of  Philippi  fol- 
lowed, in  which  Brutus  and  his  friend  Cassius. 


who  commanded  the  left  wing  of  the  army, 
were  totally  defeated.  Brutus  fell  on  his  own 
sword,  B.C.  42,  and  was  honored  with  a  mag- 
nificent funeral  by  Antony.  Plutarch  relates 
that  Caesar's  ghost  appeared  to  Brutus  in  his 
tent  before  the  battle  of  Philippi  warning  him 
of  his  approaching  fall.  Shakspeare,  in  his 
tragedy  of  Julius  Caesar,  makes  Antony  speak 
of  Brutus  as  "  the  noblest  Roman  of  them  all, " 
adding,  in  reference  to  his  character: — 

"  His  life  was  gentle;  and  the  elements 
So  mix'd  in  him  that  Nature  might  stand  up, 
And  say  to  all  the  world,  'This  was  a  man.'  " 

Bucephalus.  A  horse  of  Alexander's,  so  fre- 
quently named  by  writers  that  the  term  has 
become  proverbial.  Alexander  was  the  only 
person  that  could  mount  him,  and  he  always 
knelt  down  for  his  master  to  bestride  him. 

Ca'cus,  a  famous  robber,  son  of  Vulcan  and 
Medusa,  represented  as  a  three-headed  mon- 
ster vomiting  flames.  He  resided  in  Italy, 
and  the  avenues  of  his  cave  were  covered 
with  human  bones.  When  Hercules  returned 
from  the  conquest  of  Geryon,  Cacus  stole 
some  of  his  cows,  which  Hercules  discovering, 
he  strangled  Cacus. 

Cadmus;  son  of  Agenor,  king  of  Phoenicia,  and 
Telephassa,  or  Agriope,  was  ordered  by  his 
father  to  go  in  quest  of  his  sister  Europa, 
whom  Jupiter  had  carried  away.  His  search 
proving  fruitless,  he  consulted  the  oracle  of 


Apollo,  and  was  told  to  build  a  city  where  he 
saw  a  heifer  stop  in  the  grass,  and  call  the 
country  around  Bceotia.     He  found  the  heifer, 
as  indicated  by  the  oracle.     Requiring  water, 
he  sent  his  companions  to  fetch  some  from  a 
neighboring  grove.     The  water  was  guarded 
by  a  dragon,  who  devoured  those  who  were 
sent  for  it,   and  Cadmus,   tired  of  waiting, 
went  himself  to  the  place.     He  attacked  the 
dragon  and  killed  it,  sowing  its  teeth  in  the 
ground,  on  which  a  number  of  armed   men 
rose  out  of  the  earth.     Cadmus  threw  a  stone 
among  them,  and  they  at  once    began  fight- 
ing, and  all  were  killed  except  five,  who  as- 
sisted him  in  building  the  city.     Cadmus  in- 
troduced  the   use    of  letters   in   Greece— the 
alphabet,  as  introduced  by  him,  consisting  of 
sixteen  letters. 
Cadu'ceus.     A  rod  entwined  at  one  end  with  two 
serpents.     It  was   the  attribute  of   Mercury, 
and  was  given  to  him  by  Apollo  in  exchange 
for  the  lyre. 
Cae'sar.     A  surname  given  to  the  Julian  family 
in  Rome.     This  name,  after  it  had  been  dig- 
nified in  the  person  of  Julius  Caesar  and  his 
successors,  was  given  to  the  apparent  heir  of 
the  empire  in  the  age  of  the  Roman  emperors. 
The  first  twelve  emperors  were  distinguished 
by  the  name  of  Caesar.     They  reigned  in  this 
order  — Julius    Caesar,    Augustus,    Tiberius, 
Caligula,  Claudius,  Nero,  Galba,  Otho,  Vitel- 
lius,  Vespasian.  Titus,  and  Domitian.     Sue- 


tonius  has  written  an  exhaustive  history  of 
the  Caesars.  C.  Julius  Csesar,  the  first  em- 
peror of  Rome,  was  son  of  L.  Caesar  and  Au- 
relia,  the  daughter  of  Cotta.  He  was  de- 
scended, according  to  some  accounts,  from 
lulus,  the  son  of  ^neas.  His  eloquence  pro- 
cured him  friends  at  Rome,  and  the  generous 
manner  in  which  he  lived  equally  served  to 
promote  his  interest.  He  was  appointed  for 
five  years  over  the  Gauls.  Here  he  enlarged 
the  boundaries  of  the  Roman  empire  by  con- 
quest, and  invaded  Britain,  which  till  then 
was  unknown  to  the  Romans.  The  corrupt 
state  of  the  Roman  senate,  and  the  ambition 
of  Caesar  and  Pompe}',  caused  a  civil  war. 
Neither  of  these  celebrated  Romans  would 
endure  a  superior,  and  the  smallest  matters 
were  grounds  enough  for  unsheathing  the 
sword.  By  the  influence  of  Pompey  a  decree 
was  passed  to  strip  Caesar  of  his  power.  An- 
tony, as  tribune,  opposed  this,  and  went  to 
Caesar's  camp  with  the  news.  On  this  Caesar 
crossed  the  Rubicon,  which  was  the  boundary 
of  his  province.  The  passage  of  the  Rubicon 
was  a  declaration  of  war,  and  Caesar  entered 
Italy  with  his  army.  Upon  this  Pompey  left 
Rome  and  retired  to  Dyrrachium,  and  Caesar 
shortly  afterwards  entered  Rome.  He  then 
went  to  Spain,  where  he  conquered  the  parti- 
sans of  Pompey,  and  on  his  return  to  Rome 
was  declared  dictator,  and  soon  afterward 
consul.     The  two  hostile  generals  met  in  the 


plains  of  Pharsalia,  and  a  great  battle  ensued, 
B.C.  48.  Pompey  was  defeated  and  fled  to 
Egypt,  where  he  was  slain.  At  length  Caesar's 
glory  came  to  an  end.  Enemies  had  sprung 
up  around  him,  and  a  conspiracy,  consisting 
of  many  influential  Romans,  was  formed 
against  him.  Conspicuous  among  the  con- 
spirators was  Brutus,  his  most  intimate  friend, 
who,  with  others,  assassinated  him  in  the 
senate  house  in  the  ides  of  March,  b.c.  44,  in 
the  fifty-sixth  year  of  his  age.  He  wrote  his 
Commentaries  on  the  Gallic  wars  when  the 
battles  were  fought.  This  work  is  admired 
for  its  elegance  and  purity  of  style.  It  was 
after  his  conquest  over  Pharnaces,  king  of 
Pontus,  that  he  made  use  of  the  words,  which 
have  since  become  proverbial,  vent,  vidz,  vici, 
illustrative  of  the  activity  of  his  operations. 
Shakspeare's  tragedy  of  Julius  Caesar,  in  the 
third  act  of  which  he  is  assassinated,  uttering 
as  his  last  words,  "£"/  iu  Brute  f  Then  fall 
Caesar" — is  devoted  to  the  conspiracy  and  its 
results,  ending  with  defeat  and  death  of 
Brutus  and  Cassius  at  Philippi. 
Caligula,  a  Roman  emperor,  was  son  of  Ger- 
manicus  by  Agrippina.  He  was  proud,  wan- 
ton, and  cruel.  He  was  pleased  when  disas- 
ters befel  his  subjects,  and  often  expressed  a 
wish  that  the  Romans  had  but  one  head  that 
he  might  have  the  pleasure  of  striking  it  off. 
He  had  a  favorite  horse  made  consul  and 
adorned  it  with  the  most  valuable  trappings 


and  ornaments.  The  tyrant  was  murdered. 
A.D.  41,  in  his  twenty-ninth  year,  after  a  reign 
of  three  years  and  ten  months. 

Calli'ope.  One  of  the  Muses,  daughter  of  Jupiter 
and  Mnemosyne,  who  presided  over  eloquence 
and  heroic  poetry. 

Cal'ydon.  A  city  of  ^tolia.  where  (Eneus,  the 
father  of  Meleager,  reigned.  During  the 
reign  of  CEneus  Diana  sent  a  wild  boar  to 
ravage  the  country  on  account  of  the  neglect 
which  had  been  shown  of  her  divinity  by  the 
king.  All  the  princes  of  the  age  assembled 
to  hunt  the  Calydonian  boar.  Meleager  killed 
the  animal,  and  gave  the  head  to  Atalanta,  of 
whom  he  was  enamored. 

Calypso.  One  of  the  Oceanides,  or  one  of  the 
daughters  of  Atlas  according  to  some  writers. 
When  Ulysses  was  shipwrecked  on  her  coasts 
she  received  him  with  hospitality,  and  offered 
him  immortality  if  he  would  remain  with  her 
as  a  husband,  which  he  refused  to  do,  and 
after  seven  years'  delay  he  was  permitted  to 
depart  from  the  island  where  Calypso  reigned. 

Camby'ses,  king  of  Persia,  was  the  son  of  Cyrus 
the  Great.  He  conquered  Egypt,  and  was  so 
disgusted  at  the  superstition  of  the  Egyptians 
that  he  killed  their  god  Apis  and  plundered 
their  temples. 

Camil'lus,  L.  Fu  rius.  A  celebrated  Roman, 
called  a  second  Romulus  from  the  services  he 
rendered  his  country.  He  was  banished  for 
distributing   the   spoils  he  had    obtained   at 


Veii.  During  his  exile  Rome  was  besieged 
by  the  Gauls  under  Brennus.  The  besieged 
Romans  then  elected  him  dictator,  and  he 
went  to  the  relief  of  his  country,  which  he  de- 
livered after  it  had  been  some  time  occupied 
by  the  enemy.     He  died  B.C.  365. 

Campus  Mar  tius.  A  large  plain  without  the 
walls  of  Rome,  where  the  Roman  youth 
were  instructed  in  athletic  exercises  and  learnt 
to  throw  the  discus,  hurl  the  javelin,  etc. 

Can'nae.  A  village  of  Apuleia,  where  Hannibal 
defeated  the  Roman  consuls  ^mylius  and 
Varro.  ];.c.  216. 

Capitoli  num.  A  celebrated  temple  and  citadel 
at  Rome  on  the  Tarpeian  rock. 

Caracalla,  son  of  the  emperor  Septimius  Severus, 
was  notorious  for  his  cruelties.  He  killed  his 
brother  Geta  in  his  mother's  arms,  and  at- 
tempted to  destroy  the  writings  of  Aristotle. 
After  a  life  made  odious  by  his  vices  he  was 
assassinated,  a.d.  217,  in  the  forty -third  year 
of  his  age. 

Carac  tacus.  A  king  of  the  Britons,  who  was  con- 
quered by  the  Romans  and  taken  prisoner  to 

Carthago.  Carthage,  a  celebrated  city  of  Africa, 
the  rival  of  Rome,  and  for  a  long  period  the 
capital  of  the  country,  and  mistress  of  Spain, 
Sicily,  and  Sardinia.  The  time  of  its  founda- 
tion is  unknown,  but  it  seems  to  be  agreed 
that  it  was  built  by  Dido  about  86g  years  be- 
fore the  Christian  era,  or,  according  to  some 


writers,  72  or  73  years  before  the  foundation 
of  Rome.  It  had  reached  its  highest  glory  in 
the  days  of  Hamilcar  and  Hannibal. 

Cassan'der,  son  of  Antipater,  made  himself  mas- 
ter of  Macedonia  after  his  father's  death, 
where  he  reigned  for  eighteen  years. 

Cassan  dra,  daughter  of  Priam  and  Hecuba,  was 
passionately  loved  by  Apollo,  who  promised 
to  grant  her  whatever  she  might  require,  and 
she  obtained  from  him  the  power  of  seeing 
into  futurity.  Some  say  she  received  the  gift 
of  prophecy,  with  her  brother  Helenus,  by 
being  placed  when  young  one  night  in  the 
temple  of  Apollo,  where  serpents  were  found 
wreathed  round  their  bodies  and  licking  their 
ears,  which  gave  them  a  knowledge  of  futur- 
ity. She  was  allotted  to  Agamemnon  in  the 
division  of  the  spoils  of  Troy,  and  was  slain 
by  Clytemnestra,  Agamemnon's  wife. 

Cas'sius,  C.  A  celebrated  Roman  who  became 
famous  by  being  first  quaestor  to  Crassus  in 
his  expedition  against  Parthia.  He  married 
Junia,  the  sister  of  Brutus,  and  joined  Brutus 
in  the  conspiracy  formed  to  assassinate  Csesar, 
after  which  he  returned  to  Philippi  with 
Brutus,  and  commanded  one  wing  of  the 
army  in  the  famous  battle  fought  there.  On 
the  defeat  of  his  forces  he  ordered  one  of  his 
freedmen  to  kill  him,  and  he  perished  by  the 
sword  which  had  inflicted  a  wound  on  Cajsar. 
He  was  called  by  Brutus  "the  last  of  all  the 


Castalius  Fons,  or  Casta  lia.  A  fountain  of 
Parnassus  sacred  to  the  Muses. 

Castor  and  Pollux  were  twin  brothers,  sons  of 
Jupiter  and  Leda.  Mercury  carried  them  to 
Pallena,  where  they  were  educated.  As  soon 
as  they  arrived  at  manhood  they  embarked 
with  Jason  in  quest  of  the  Golden  Fleece.  In 
this  expedition  they  evinced  great  courage. 
Pollux  defeated  and  slew  Amycus  in  the  com- 
bat of  the  Cestus,  and  was  afterward  consid- 
ered to  be  the  god  and  patron  of  boxing  and 
wrestling.  Castor  distinguished  himself  in 
the  management  of  horses. 

Catili  na,  L.  Ser  gius,  a  celebrated  Roman,  de 
scended  from  a  noble  family.  When  he  had 
squandered  his  fortune  he  secretly  meditated 
the  ruin  of  his  country,  and  conspired  with 
many  Romans  as  dissolute  as  himself  to  extir- 
pate the  senate,  plunder  the  treasures,  and 
set  Rome  on  fire.  This  plot,  known  as  the 
Catiline  conspiracy,  was  unsuccessful.  The 
history  of  it  is  written  by  Sallust.  Catiline 
was  killed  in  battle  u.c.  63. 

Ca'to,  Marcus,  was  great-grandson  of  the  censor 
Cato.  The  early  virtues  that  appeared  in  his 
childhood  seemed  to  promise  that  he  would 
become  a  great  man.  He  was  austere  in  his 
morals  and  a  strict  follower  of  the  tenets  of 
the  Stoics.  His  fondness  for  candor  was  so 
great  that  his  veracity  became  proverbial.  In 
the  Catilinian  conspiracy  he  supported  Cicero. 
and  was  the  chief  cause  of  the  capital  punish- 


ment  which  was  inflicted  on  some  of  the  con- 
spirators. He  stabbed  himself  after  reading 
Plato's  treatise  on  the  immortality  of  the 
soul,  B.C.  46,  in  the  fifty-ninth  year  of  his 
age.  Addison  has  familiarized  us  with  a  por- 
tion of  the  history  of  the  great  Roman  in  his 
noble  tragedy  of  "Cato,"  in  which  occurs — in 
the  fifth  act — the  well-known  soliloquy  on  the 
immortality  of  the  soul.  Pope  wrote  the  pro- 
logue to  the  play,  which  he  commences  with 
the  familiar  couplet : — 

"  To  wake  the  soul  by  tender  strokes  of  art, 
To  raise  the  genius,  and  to  mend  the  heart." 

Catullus,  C,  or  Q.  Vale  rius.  A  poet  of  Verona 
whose  compositions  are  the  offspring  of  a 
luxuriant  imagination.  He  was  acquainted 
with  the  most  distinguished  people  of  his  age. 
He  directed  his  satire  against  Csesar,  whose 
only  revenge  was  to  invite  him  to  a  sumptu- 
ous banquet. 

Cel'sus,  a  physician  in  the  age  of  Tiberius,  who 
wrote  eight  books  on  medicine,  besides  trea- 
tises on  agriculture,  rhetoric,  and  military 

Centau'ri.  A  people  of  Thessaly,  half  men  and 
half  horses.  They  were  the  offspring  of  Cen- 
taurus  and  Stilbia. 

Centumviri.  The  members  of  a  court  of  justice 
at  Rome.  Though  originally  105  in  number, 
they  were  known  as  Centumvirs,  and  this 
name  they  retained  when  they  were  increased 
to  180. 


Cer'berus.  A  dog  of  Pluto.  According  to  Hesiod 
he  had  fifty  heads,  but  according  toother  my- 
thologists  he  had  three  only.  He  was  placed 
at  the  entrance  to  the  infernal  regions  to  pre- 
vent the  living  from  entering,  and  the  inhab- 
itants of  the  place  from  escaping. 

Ce'res,  the  goddess  of  corn  and  harvests,  was 
daughter  of  Saturn  and  Vesta.  She  was  the 
mother  of  Proserpine,  who  was  carried  away 
by  Pluto  while  she  was  gathering  flowers. 

Chaerone'a,  a  city  of  Boeotia  celebrated  for  a  great 
battle  fought  there  in  which  the  Athenians 
were  defeated  by  the  Boeotians,  b.c.  447,  and 
for  the  victory  which  Philip  of  Macedonia  ob- 
tained there  over  the  confederate  armies  of 
the  Thebans  and  Athenians,  b.c.  338.  It  was 
the  birthplace  of  Plutarch.  Milton  in  one  of 
his  sonnets  alludes  to  the  place  : — 

"  That  dishonest  victory, 
At  Chaeronea  fatal  to  liberty, 
Killed  with  report  that  old  man  eloquent." 

Isocrates  is  the  "old  man  eloquent"  thus  al- 
luded to. 

Cha'ron.  A  god  of  the  infernal  regions,  son  of 
Nox  and  Erebus,  who  conducted  the  souls  of 
the  dead  in  a  boat  over  the  rivers  Styx  and 

Cheops.  A  king  of  Egypt,  after  Rhampsinitus, 
famous  for  building  pyramids. 

Chimse'ra.  A  celebrated  monster  which  continu- 
ally vomited  flames.  It  was  destroyed  by 


Chi'ron.  A  centaur,  half  a  man  and  half  a  horse, 
son  of  Philyra  and  Saturn.  He  was  famous 
for  his  knowledge  of  music,  medicine,  and 
shooting,  and  taught  mankind  the  use  of 
plants  and  medicinal  herbs. 

Chrysos'tom.  A  bishop  of  Constantinople  who 
died  A.D.  407.  He  was  a  great  disciplinarian, 
and  by  severely  lashing  the  vices  of  his  age 
he  made  many  enemies. 

Cic'ero,  M.  T.,  born  at  Arpinum,  was  son  of  a 
Roman  knight  and  lineally  descended  from 
the  ancient  kings  of  the  Sabines.  In  youth 
he  displayed  many  abilities,  and  was  taught 
philosophy  by  Philo,  and  law  by  Mutius  Scse- 
vola.  He  applied  himself  with  great  dili- 
gence to  the  study  of  oratory  and  was  distin- 
guished above  all  the  speakers  of  his  time  in 
the  Roman  Forum.  He  signalized  himself  in 
opposing  Catiline,  whom  he  publicly  accused 
of  treason  against  the  State,  and  whom  he 
drove  from  the  city.  After  a  number  of  vicis- 
situdes of  fortune  he  was  assassinated,  B.C. 
43,  at  the  age  of  sixty-three. 

Cincinna'tus,  L.  Q.  A  celebrated  Roman,  who 
was  informed  as  he  plowed  in  the  fields  that 
the  senate  had  chosen  him  to  be  dictator.  On 
this  he  left  the  plow  and  repaired  to  the  field 
of  battle,  where  his  countrymen  were  opposed 
by  the  Volsci  and  Alqui.  He  conquered  the 
enemy,  and  entered  Rome  in  triumph. 

Cir'ce.  A  daughter  of  Sol  and  Perseis,  celebrated 
for  her  knowledge  of  magic  and  venomous 


herbs.  She  was  carried  by  her  father  to  an 
island  called  ^aea.  Ulysses  on  his  return 
from  the  Trojan  war  visited  her  coasts,  and 
his  companions  were  changed,  by  her  potions, 
into  swine.  Ulysses,  who  was  fortified 
against  enchantments  by  an  herb  which  he 
had  received  from  Mercury,  demanded  of 
Circe  the  restoration  of  his  companions  to 
their  former  shape :  she  complied  with  his 
wishes,  and  eventually  permitted  him  to  de- 
part from  her  island. 

Claudia'nus.  A  celebrated  poet,  in  the  age  of 
Honorius,  who  is  considered  by  some  writers 
to  equal  Virgil  in  the  majestic  character  of 
his  style. 

Claudius,  T.  Drusus  Nero,  son  of  Drusus,  be- 
came emperor  of  Rome  after  the  death  of 
Caligula.  He  went  to  Britain,  and  obtained 
a  triumph  for  victories  achieved  by  his  gen- 
erals. He  suffered  himself  to  be  governed 
by  favorites  whose  avarice  plundered  the  State 
and  distracted  the  provinces.  He  was  poi- 
soned by  Agrippina.  who  wished  to  raise  her 
son  Nero  to  the  throne. 

Cleopatra,  queen  of  Egypt,  daughter  of  Ptolemy 
Auletes,  was  celebrated  for  her  beauty.  An- 
tony became  enamored  of  her  and  married 
her,  ignoring  his  vows  to  Octavia,  the  sister 
of  Augustus.  He  gave  her  the  greatest  part 
of  the  eastern  provinces  of  the  Roman  empire. 
This  caused  a  rupture  between  Augustus  and 
Antony,  and  these  two  famous  men  met  at 


Actium,  when  Cleopatra,  by  flying  with  sixty 
ships,  ruined  the  battle  for  Antony,  and  he 
was  defeated.  Cleopatra  destroyed  herself  by 
applying  an  asp  to  her  breast. 

Cli'o.  The  first  of  the  Muses,  daughter  of  Jupiter 
and  Mnemosyne.     She  presided  over  history. 

Cloaci  na.  A  goddess  of  Rome  who  presided 
over  the  Cloacae,  which  were  large  recepta- 
cles for  the  filth  of  the  whole  city. 

Clo'tho,  the  youngest  of  the  three  Parcae,  who 
were  daughters  of  Jupiter  and  Themis,  was 
supposed  to  preside  over  the  moment  of  birth. 
She  held  the  distaff  in  her  hand  and  spun  the 
thread  of  life. 

Clytemnes  tra.  A  daughter  of  Tyndarus,  king 
of  Sparta,  and  Leda.  married  Agamemnon, 
king  of  Argos,  in  whose  absence  in  the  Tro- 
jan war  she  misconducted  herself  with  his 
cousin  ^gysthus.  On  the  return  of  Aga- 
memnon, Clytemnestra  murdered  him,  as  well 
as  Cassandra  whom  he  had  brought  with  him. 
After  this  Clytemnestra  ascended  the  throne 
of  Argos.  In  the  mean  time  her  son  Orestes, 
after  an  absence  of  seven  years,  returned,  re- 
solved to  avenge  the  death  of  his  father  Aga- 
memnon. On  an  occasion  when  ^gysthus 
and  Clytemnestra  repaired  to  the  Temple  of 
Apollo,  Orestes,  with  his  friend  Pylades, 
killed  them. 

Clyt'ia  or  Clyt  ie.  A  daughter  of  Oceanus  and 
Tethys,  beloved  by  Apollo.  She  was  changed 
into  a  sunflower. 


Codes,  P.  Horatius.  A  celebrated  Roman  who 
alone  opposed  the  whole  army  of  Porsenna  at 
the  head  of  a  bridge  while  his  companions 
were  cutting  off  the  communication  with  the 
other  shore.  When  the  bridge  was  destroyed, 
Codes,  though  wounded  by  the  darts  of  the 
enemy,  leapt  into  the  Tiber  and  swam  across 
it,  armed  as  he  was.  For  his  heroism  a 
brazen  statue  was  raised  to  him  in  the  Temple 
of  Vulcan.  Lord  Macaulaj',  who  has  written 
a  noble  poem  on  this  heroic  deed  of  Horatius 
Codes,  says,  "There  are  several  versions  of 
the  story,  and  these  versions  differ  from  each 
other  in  points  of  no  small  importance."  Ac- 
cording to  his  version  Horatius  had  two  com- 
panions who  stood  by  his  side  defending  the 
bridge  ;  these  were  Spurius  Lartius  and  Her- 
minius.  The  final  quatrain  of  the  poem  rec- 
ords how — 

"  With  weeping  and  with  laughter 
Still  is  the  story  told, 
How  well  Horatius  kept  the  bridge, 
In  the  brave  days  of  old." 

Co'drus.  The  last  king  of  Athens,  son  of  Melan- 
thus.  When  the  Heraclida?  made  war  against 
Athens,  the  oracle  said  that  the  victory  would 
be  granted  to  that  nation  whose  king  was 
killed  in  battle.  The  Heraclidse  on  hearing 
this  gave  orders  to  spare  the  life  of  Codrus, 
but  the  patriotic  king  disguised  himself,  and 
engaging  with  one  of  the  enemy,  was  killed. 
The    Athenians    obtained    the    victory,    and 


Codrus  was  regarded  as  the  savior  of  his 

Coe'lus  or  Ura'nus.  An  ancient  deity  supposed 
to  be  the  father  of  Saturn,  Oceanus,  and 

Colchis  or  Corchos.  A  country  of  Asia  famous 
for  the  expedition  of  the  Argonauts,  and  as 
being  the  birthplace  of  Medea. 

Collati  nus,  L.  Tarquin'ius.  A  nephew  of  Tar- 
quin  the  Proud.  He  married  Lucretia.  He, 
with  Brutus,  drove  the  Tarquins  from  Rome. 

Colossus.  A  celebrated  brazen  image  at  Rhodes, 
which  was  considered  to  be  one  of  the  seven 
wonders  of  the  world. 

Com'modus,  L.  Aure'lius  Antoni  nus,  son  of  M. 
Antoninus,  succeeded  his  father  in  the  Roman 
empire.  He  was  naturally  cruel  and  fond  of 
indulging  his  licentious  propensities.  I^esir- 
ous  of  being  likened  to  Hercules,  he  adorned 
his  shoulders  with  a  lion's  skin,  and  carried 
a  knotted  club  in  his  hand.  He  fought  with 
the  gladiators,  and  boasted  of  his  skill  in  kill- 
ing wild  beasts  in  the  amphitheater.  He  was 
strangled  by  a  wrestler  in  the  thirty-first  year 
of  his  age,  a.i;.  iq2. 

Co'mus.  The  god  of  revelry,  feasting,  and  noc- 
turnal amusements.  He  is  represented  as  a 
drunken  young  man  with  a  torch  in  his 

Concordia.  The  goddess  of  peace  and  concord 
at  Rome,  to  whom  Camillus  raised  a  temple 
in  the  Capitol. 


Confucius.  A  Chinese  philosopher,  as  much 
honored  among  his  countrymen  as  if  he  had 
been  a  monarch.     He  died  about  499  years 


Co'non.  A  famous  general  of  Athens,  son  of 
Timotheus.  He  was  made  governor  of  all  the 
islands  of  the  Athenians,  and  was  defeated  in 
a  naval  battle  by  Lysander.  He  defeated  the 
Spartans  near  Cnidos,  when  Pisander,  the 
enemy's  admiral,  was  killed.  He  died  in 
prison  B.C.  393. 

Constan  tia.  A  grand-daughter  of  the  great 
Constantine,  who  married  the  Emperor  Gra- 

Constanti  nus,  surnamed  the  Great  from  the 
greatness  of  his  exploits,  was  son  of  Constan- 
tius.  It  is  said  that  as  he  was  going  to  fight 
against  Maxentius,  one  of  his  rivals,  he  saw 
a  cross  in  the  sky  with  the  inscription,  In  hoc 
vi7ice.  From  this  he  became  a  convert  to 
Christianity,  ever  after  adopting  a  cross  for 
his  standard.  He  founded  a  city  where  old 
Byzantium  formerly  stood,  and  called  it  Con- 
stantinopolis.  There  he  kept  his  court,  and 
made  it  the  rival  of  Rome  in  population  and 
magnificence.  He  died  a.d.  337,  after  a  reign 
of  thirty-one  years  of  the  greatest  glory. 

Constan  tius  Chlo  rus,  son  of  Eutropius,  and 
father  of  the  great  Constantine.  He  obtained 
victories  in  Britain  and  Germany.  He  be- 
came the  colleague  of  Galerius  on  the  abdica- 
tion of  Diocletian,  and  died  a.d.  306,  bearing 


the  reputation  of  being  brave,  humane,  and 

Consul.  A  magistrate  at  Rome  with  regal  au- 
thority for  the  space  of  a  year.  There  were 
two  consuls,  who  were  annually  chosen  in  the 
Campus  Martins.  The  first  two  were  L.  Jun. 
Brutus  and  L.  Tarquinius  Collatinus. 

Corin'na.  A  celebrated  woman  of  Thebes,  whose 
father  was  Archelodorus.  It  is  said  that  she 
obtained  a  poetical  prize  five  times  against 
the  competitorship  of  Pindar. 

Coriola'nus.  The  surname  of  C.  Martins,  from 
his  victory  over  Corioli.  After  a  number  of 
military  exploits,  and  many  services  to  his 
country,  he  was  refused  the  consulship.  He 
was  banished,  and  went  to  the  Volsci,  where 
he  met  with  a  gracious  reception  from  Tullus 
Aufidius,  whom  he  advised  to  make  war 
against  Rome,  marching  with  the  Volsci  as 
general.  His  approach  alarmed  the  Romans, 
who  sent  his  mother  and  bis  wife  to  meet  him 
and  appease  his  resentment  against  his  coun- 
trymen, which  with  difficulty  they  succeeded 
in  doing.  Shakspeare  has  made  his  history 
the  sul)ject  of  the  tragedy  of  "Coriolanus," 
which  concludes  with  the  assassination  of  the 
hero  by  Tullus  Aufidius  and  his  attendants. 

Come  lia.  A  daughter  of  Scipio  Africanus, 
famous  for  her  learning  and  virtues,  and  as 
being  the  mother  of  the  Gracchi,  Tiberius  and 
Caius  Gracchus.  Her  husband  was  T.  Sem- 
pronius  Gracchus. 


Cras  sus,  M.  Licin  ius.  A  celebrated  Roman, 
who  by  educating  slaves  and  selling  them,  be- 
came very  wealthy.  He  was  made  consul 
with  Pompey,  and  was  afterward  censor,  and 
formed  one  of  the  first  triumvirate,  his  associ- 
ates in  it  being  Pompey  and  Caesar.  In  the 
hope  of  enlarging  his  possessions  he  left 
Rome,  crossed  the  Euphrates,  and  hastened 
to  make  himself  master  of  Parthia.  He  was 
met  by  Surena  the  Parthian  general,  and  in 
the  battle  which  ensued  20,000  of  the  Romans 
were  killed  and  10,000  made  prisoners.  Cras- 
sus  surrendered,  and  was  put  to  death  b.c.  53. 

Creon,  king  of  Corinth,  was  son  of  Sisyphus. 
He  promised  his  daughter  Glauce  to  Jason, 
who  had  repudiated  Medea.  To  revenge  her- 
self on  her  rival,  Medea  sent  her  a  present  of 
a  dress  covered  with  poison.  Glauce  put  it 
on,  and  was  seized  with  sudden  pain.  Her 
body  took  fire,  and  she  expired  in  the  greatest 
agony.  The  house  in  which  she  was  was  also 
consumed,  and  Creon  and  his  family  shared 
Glance's  fate. 

Cre'on.  King  of  Thebes,  whose  territories  were 
ravaged  by  the  Sphinx.  Creon  offered  his 
crown  to  any  one  who  would  explain  the 
enigmas  proposed  by  the  Sphinx.  CEdipus 
solved  the  riddles,  and  ascended  the  throne  of 

CrcE  sus,  the  fifth  and  last  of  the  Mermnadse,  who 
reigned  in  Lydia,  was  the  son  of  Alyattes, 
and  was  considered  the  richest  man  in  the 


world.  His  court  was  an  asylum  for  learn- 
ing, and  ^sop,  the  famous  fable  writer,  with 
other  learned  men,  lived  under  his  patronage. 
"As  rich  as  Croesus,"  has  become  a  proverb. 

Cupi  do,  god  of  love,  son  of  Jupiter  and  Venus, 
is  represented  as  a  winged  infant,  naked, 
armed  with  a  bow  and  arrows.  On  gems  and 
ornaments  he  is  represented  generally  as 
amusing  himself  with  some  childish  diver- 
sion. Cupid,  like  the  rest  of  the  gods,  as- 
sumed different  shapes,  and  we  find  him  in 
the  ^neid  putting  on,  at  the  request  of  his 
mother,  the  form  of  Ascanius,  and  going  to 
Dido's  court,  where  he  inspired  the  queen 
with  love. 

Cur'tius,  M.  A  Roman  who  devoted  himself  to 
the  service  of  his  country,  about  360  j'-ears 
B.C.,  by  leaping,  on  horseback  and  fully 
armed,  into  a  huge  gap  in  the  earth  at  the 
command  of  the  oracle. 

Cyb  ele.  A  goddess,  daughter  of  Coelus  and 
Terra,  and  wife  of  Saturn.  She  is  supposed 
to  be  the  same  as  Ceres.  Rhea,  Ops,  Vesta, 
etc.  According  to  Diodorus,  she  was  the 
daughter  of  a  Lydian  prince.  On  her  birth 
she  was  exposed  on  a  mountain,  where  she 
was  tended  and  fed  by  wild  beasts,  receiving 
the  name  of  Cybele  from  the  mountain  where 
her  life  had  been  preserved. 

Cyclopes.  A  race  of  men  of  gigantic  stature, 
supposed  to  be  the  sons  of  Ctielus  and  Terra. 
They  had  only  one  eye,  which  was  in  the  cen- 


tre  of  the  forehead.  According  to  Hesiod 
they  were  three  in  number,  and  named  Arges, 
Brontes,  and  Steropes. 

Cyrus.  A  king  of  Persia,  son  of  Cambyses, 
and  Mandane,  daughter  of  Astyages,  king  of 
Media.  Xenophon  has  written  the  life  of 
Cyrus,  and  delineates  him  as  a  brave  and  vir- 
tuous prince,  and  often  puts  in  his  mouth  many 
of  the  sayings  of  Socrates. 

Cy'rus  the  younger  was  the  son  of  Darius  Nothus 
and  the  brother  of  Artaxerxes,  the  latter  suc- 
ceeding to  the  throne  at  the  death  of  Nothus. 
Cyrus  was  appointed  to  the  command  of 
Lydia  and  the  sea-coasts,  where  he  fomented 
rebellion  and  levied  troops  under  various  pre- 
tenses. At  length  he  took  the  field  with  an 
army  of  100,000  Barbarians  and  13,000  Greeks 
under  the  command  of  Clearchus.  Artaxerxes 
met  him  with  900,000  men  near  Cunaxa.  The 
engagement  ended  fatally  for  Cyrus,  who  was 
killed,  401  years  b.c. 

Daedalus,  an  Athenian,  was  the  most  ingenious 
artist  of  his  age  ;  he  was  the  inventor  of  the 
wedge  and  many  other  mechanical  instru- 
ments. He  made  a  famous  labyrinth  for 
Minos,  king  of  Crete,  but  incurred  the  dis- 
pleasure of  Minos,  who  ordered  him  to  be 
confined  in  the  labyrinth.  Here  he  made 
himself  wings  with  feathers  and  wax,  and 
fitted  them  to  his  body,  adopting  the  same 
course  with  his  son  Icarus  who  was  the  com- 


panion  of  his  confinement.  They  mounted 
into  the  air,  but  the  heat  of  the  sun  melted  the 
wax  on  the  wings  of  Icarus,  and  he  fell  into 
the  ocean,  which  after  him  has  been  called 
the  Icarian  Sea.  The  father  alighted  safely 
at  Cumae,  where  he  built  a  temple  to  Apollo. 

Dan'ae,  daughter  of  Acrisius,  king  of  Argos,  and 
Eurydice.  Jupiter  was  enamored  with  her, 
and  they  had  a  son,  with  whom  Danae  was 
exposed  in  a  boat  on  the  sea  by  her  father. 
The  winds  carried  them  to  the  island  of  Seri- 
phus,  where  she  was  saved  by  some  fisher- 
men, and  carried  to  Polydectes,  king  of  the 
place,  whose  brother,  named  Dictys,  educated 
the  child,  who  was  called  Perseus,  and  kindly 
treated  the  mother. 

Dana'ides.  The  fifty  daughters  of  Danaus,  king 
of  Argos,  who  married  the  fifty  sons  of  their 
uncle  ^gyptus.  Danaus  had  been  told  by 
the  oracle  that  he  would  be  killed  by  a  son-in- 
law,  and  he  made  his  daughters  promise  to 
slay  their  husbands  immediately  after  mar- 
riage. All  of  them  fulfilled  their  father's 
wishes  except  one,  Ilypermnestra,  who  spared 
her  husband  Lynceus. 

Daph'ne.  A  daughter  of  the  River  Peneus,  or  of 
the  Ladon,  and  the  goddess  Terra,  of  whom 
Apollo  became  enamored.  Daphne  fled  to 
avoid  the  addresses  of  this  god,  and  was 
changed  into  a  laurel. 

Dar'danus.  A  son  of  Jupiter,  who  killed  his 
brother    Jasius    to    obtain    the    kingdom    of 


Etruria.  He  built  the  city  of  Dardania,  and 
was  reckoned  to  have  been  the  founder  of 

Dari  us.  A  noble  satrap  of  Persia,  son  of  Hys- 
taspes,  who  usurped  the  crown  of  Persia  after 
the  death  of  Cambyses.  Darius  was  twenty- 
nine  years  old  when  he  ascended  the  throne, 
and  he  soon  distinguished  himself  by  his  mil- 
itary prowess.  He  besieged  Babylon,  which 
he  took  after  a  siege  of  twenty  months.  He 
died  B.C.  4S5. 

Dari  us,  the  second  king  of  Persia  of  that  name, 
ascended  the  throne  of  Persia  soon  after  the 
murder  of  Xerxes.  He  carried  on  many  wars 
with  success,  aided  by  his  generals  and  his 
son  Cyrus  the  younger.  He  died  b.c.  404, 
after  a  reign  of  nineteen  years. 

Dari  us.  The  third  king  of  Persia  of  that  name. 
He  soon  had  to  take  the  field  against  Alexan- 
der, who  invaded  Persia.  Darius  met  him 
with  an  enormous  army,  which,  however,  was 
more  remarkable  for  the  luxuries  indulged  in 
by  its  leaders  than  for  military  courage.  A 
battle  was  fought  near  the  Granicus,  in  which 
the  Persians  were  easily  defeated,  and  an- 
other conflict  followed  near  Issus,  equally 
fatal  to  the  Persians.  Darius  escaped  and 
assembled  another  powerful  army.  The  last 
and  decisive  battle  was  fought  at  Arbela,  Al- 
exander being  again  victorious.  When  the 
fight  was  over  Darius  was  found  in  his  chariot 
covered  with  wounds  and  expiring,  b.c.  331. 


Dejani'ra.  A  daughter  of  CEneus,  king  of  ^tolia. 
Her  beauty  procured  her  many  admirers,  and 
her  father  promised  to  give  her  in  marriage 
to  him  who  should  excel  in  a  competition  of 
strength.  Hercules  obtained  the  prize,  and 
married  Dejanira. 

Del  phi.  A  town  of  Phocis  at  the  southwest  side 
of  Mount  Parnassus.  It  was  famous  for  a 
temple  of  Apollo,  and  for  an  oracle  celebrated 
in  every  age  and  country. 

Demetrius.  A  son  of  Antigonus  and  Stratonice, 
surnamed  Poliorcetes,  destroyt:?'  of  to7i'?is. 
At  the  age  of  twenty-two  he  was  sent  by  his 
father  against  Ptolemy,  who  had  invaded 
Syria.  He  was  defeated  at  Gaza,  but  soon 
afterward  obtained  a  victory.  The  greater 
part  of  his  life  was  passed  in  warfare,  his  for- 
tunes undergoing  many  changes.  He  was- 
distinguished  for  his  fondness  of  dissipation 
when  in  dissolute  society,  and  for  military 
skill  and  valor  in  the  battle-field.  He  died 
B.C.  2S6. 

Demetrius.  Surnamed  Safer,  king  of  Syria. 
His  father  gave  him  as  a  hostage  to  the 
Romans.  After  the  death  of  his  father,  Se- 
leucus  Philopator,  Antiochus  Epiphanes 
usurped  the  throne  of  Syria,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Antiochus  Eupator.  De- 
metrius procured  his  liberty,  and  established 
himself  on  the  throne,  causing  Eupator  to  be 
put  to  death. 

Demetrius.     Son  of  Soter,  whom   he   succeeded 


after  he  had  driven  from  the  throne  a  usurper, 
Alexander  Bala.  Demetrius  gave  himself  up 
to  luxury,  and  suffered  his  kingdom  to  be 
governed  by  his  favorites,  thus  becoming 
odious  to  his  subjects.  He  was  at  last  killed 
by  the  governor  of  Tyre,  where  he  had  fled 
for  protection. 

Demetrius  Phale'reus.  A  disciple  of  Theophras- 
tus,  who  gained  such  influence  over  the  Athe- 
nians by  his  eloquence  and  the  purity  of  his 
manners,  that  he  was  elected  decennial  archon, 
B.C.  317.  He  embellished  the  city,  and  ren- 
dered himself  popular  by  his  munificence,  but 
his  enemies  plotted  against  him,  and  he  fled 
to  the  court  of  Ptolemy  Lagus,  where  he  was 
received  with  kindness.  He  put  an  end  to  his 
life  by  permitting  an  asp  to  bite  him,  b.c.  284. 
There  were  several  others  of  the  name  of  De- 
metrius of  minor  note. 

Democ'ritus.  A  celebrated  philosopher  of  Abdera, 
one  of  the  disciples  of  Leucippus.  He  trav- 
eled over  the  greatest  part  of  Europe,  Asia, 
and  Africa  in  quest  of  knowledge,  and  re- 
turned home  in  the  greatest  poverty.  He  in- 
dulged in  continual  laughter  at  the  follies  of 
mankind  for  distracting  themselves  with  care 
and  anxiety  in  the  short  term  of  their  lives. 
He  told  Darius,  who  was  inconsolable  for  the 
loss  of  his  wife,  that  he  would  raise  her  from 
the  dead  if  he  could  find  three  persons  who 
had  gone  through  life  without  adversity, 
whose  names  he  might  engrave  on  the  queen's 


monument.  He  taught  his  disciples  that  the 
soul  died  with  the  body.  He  died  in  his  109th 
year,  b. c.  361.  He  has  been  termed  "the 
laughing  philosopher."  Dr.  Johnson  refers 
to  this  phase  in  his  character  in  "The  Vanity 
of  Human  Wishes  :" — 

"  Once  more,  Democritus,  arise  on  earth, 
With  cheerful  wisdom  and  instructive  mirth. 
See  motley  life  in  modern  trappings  drest. 
And  feed  with  varied  fools  th'  eternal  jest." 

Demosthenes,  a  celebrated  Athenian,  was  son  of 
a  rich  blacksmith,  and  Cleobule.  He  became 
pupil  of  Plato,  and  applied  himself  to  study 
the  orations  of  Isocrates.  At  the  age  of  sev- 
enteen he  gave  early  proof  of  his  eloquence 
and  abilities  in  displaying  them  against  his 
guardians,  from  whom  he  obtained  restitution 
of  the  greater  part  of  his  estate.  To  correct 
the  stammering  of  voice  under  which  he 
labored  he  spoke  with  pebbles  in  his  mouth. 
In  the  battle  of  Cheronaea  he  evinced  coward- 
ice, and  saved  his  life  by  flight.  He  ended 
his  life  by  taking  poison,  which  he  always 
carried  in  a  quill,  in  the  sixtieth  year  of  his 
age,  B.C.  322. 

Deuca  lion.  A  son  of  Prometheus,  who  married 
Pyrrha,  the  daughter  of  Epimetheus.  He 
reigned  over  part  of  Thessaly,  and  in  his  age 
the  earth  was  covered  by  a  deluge  of  water, 
sent  by  Jupiter  as  a  punishment  for  the  im- 
piety of  mankind.  Deucalion  constructed  a 
ship,  and  by   this  means  saved  himself  and 


Pyrrha.  The  ship,  after  being  tossed  on  the 
waves  for  nine  days,  rested  on  Mount  Parnas- 
sus. The  deluge  of  Deucalion  is  supposed  to 
have  occurred  b.c.  1503. 

Diana.  The  goddess  of  hunting.  According  to 
Cicero  there  were  three  of  the  name — viz. ,  a 
daughter  of  Jupiter  and  Proserpine,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Jupiter  and  Latona,  and  a  daughter  of 
Upis  and  Glauce.  The  second  is  the  most 
celebrated,  and  all  mention  of  Diana  by 
ancient  writers  refers  to  her.  To  shun  the 
society  of  men  she  devoted  herself  to  hunting, 
and  was  always  accompanied  by  a  number  of 
young  women,  who,  like  herself,  abjured 
marriage.  She  is  represented  with  a  quiver, 
and  attended  by  dogs.  The  most  famous  of 
her  temples  was  that  at  Ephesus,  which  was 
one  of  the  wonders  of  the  world. 

Dictator.  A  magistrate  at  Rome,  invested  with 
regal  authority. 

Di  do.  A  daughter  of  Belus.  king  of  Tyre,  who 
married  Sichasus  or  Sicharbus,  her  uncle,  who 
was  priest  of  Hercules.  Pygmalion  killed 
Sichaeus  to  obtain  his  immense  riches,  and 
Dido,  disconsolate  at  the  loss  of  her  husband, 
set  sail  with  a  number  of  Tyrians  in  quest  of 
a  place  in  which  to  form  a  settlement.  A 
storm  drove  her  fleet  on  the  African  coast,  and 
she  bought  of  the  inhabitants  as  much  land 
as  could  be  inclosed  by  a  bull's  hide  cut  into 
thongs.  On  this  land  she  built  a  citadel 
called  Byrsa,  which  was  the  nucleus  of  a  great 


city  (Carthage) .  Her  subjects  wished  her  to 
marry  again,  but  she  refused,  and  erected  a 
funeral  pile,  on  which  she  ascended  and 
stabbed  herself  to  death. 

Diocletia  nus,  Cai  us  Valer  ius  Jo  vius.  A  cele- 
brated Roman  emperor,  born  of  an  obscure 
family  in  Dalmatia.  He  was  first  a  common 
soldier,  and  by  merit  gradually  rose  to  the 
position  of  a  general,  and  at  length  he  was 
invested  with  imperial  power.  He  has  been 
celebrated  for  his  military  virtues,  and 
though  he  was  naturally  unpolished  by  educa- 
tion, yet  he  was  the  friend  and  patron  of  learn- 
ing and  genius.  His  cruelty,  however, 
against  the  followers  of  Christianity  has  been 
severely  reprobated.  After  reigning  twenty- 
one  years  in  great  prosperity,  he  abdicated, 
A.D.  304,  and  died  nine  years  afterward,  aged 

Diodo'rus,  Sic  ulus.  Celebrated  as  the  author  of 
a  history  of  Egypt,  Persia,  Syria,  Media, 
Greece,  Rome,  and  Carthage.  It  was  divided 
into  forty  books,  of  which  only  fifteen  are  ex- 
tant, with  a  few  fragments. 

Diogenes.  A  celebrated  cynic  philosopher  of 
Sinope,  banished  from  his  country  for  coining 
false  money.  From  Sinope  he  retired  to 
Athens,  where  he  became  the  disciple  of  An- 
tisthenes.  who  was  at  the  head  of  the  Cynics. 
He  dressed  himself  in  the  garment  which  dis- 
tinguished the  Cynics,  and  walked  about  the 
streets  with  a  tub  on  his  head,  which  served 


him  as  a  house.  His  singularity,  joined  to 
his  great  contempt  for  riches,  gained  him 
reputation,  and  Alexander  the  Great  visited 
the  philosopher  and  asked  him  if  there  was 
anything  in  which  he  could  oblige  him.  "Get 
out  of  my  sunshine,"  was  the  reply  of  the 
Cynic.  Such  independence  pleased  the  mon- 
arch, who,  turning  to  his  courtiers,  said, 
"Were  I  not  Alexander,  I  would  wish  to  be 
Diogenes. "  He  was  once  sold  as  a  slave,  and 
his  magnanimity  so  pleased  his  master,  that 
he  made  him  the  preceptor  of  his  children  and 
the  guardian  of  his  estates.  He  died,  b.c. 
324,  in  the  ninety-sixth  year  of  his  age.  The 
life  of  Diogenes  does  not  bear  strict  examina- 
tion :  while  boasting  of  his  poverty,  he  was 
so  arrogant  that  it  has  been  observed  that  his 
virtues  arose  from  pride  and  vanity,  not  from 
wisdom  or  sound  philosophy. 

Dio'genes  Laer  tins.  An  Epicurean  philosopher, 
born  in  Cilicia.  He  wrote  the  lives  of  the  phil- 
osophers in  ten  books.  This  work  contains 
an  accurate  account  of  the  ancient  philoso- 
phers, and  is  replete  with  anecdotes  respecting 
them.  It  is  compiled,  however,  without  any 
plan,  method,  or  precision,  though  neatness 
and  conciseness  are  observable  in  it. 

Diome'des,  a  son  of  Tydeus  and  Deiphyle,  was 
king  of  ^tolia.  and  one  of  the  bravest  of  the 
Grecian  chiefs  in  the  Trojan  war.  He  often 
engaged  Hector  and  ^neas,  and  obtained 
much  military  glory. 


Diome  des.  A  king  of  Thrace,  son  of  Mars  and 
Cyrene.  who  fed  his  horses  with  human  flesh. 
Hercules  destroyed  Diomedes,  and  gave  him 
to  his  own  horses  to  be  devoured. 

Di  on.  A  Syracusan,  son  of  Hipparina,  famous 
for  his  pow-er  and  abilities.  He  was  related 
toDionysiusthe  First,  who  constantly  advised 
with  him,  and  at  whose  court  he  obtained 
great  popularity.  He  was  assassinated  354 
years  before  the  Christian  era  by  one  of  his 
familiar  friends.  His  death  was  greatly  la- 
mented by  the  Syracusans,  who  raised  a  mon- 
ument to  his  memory.  When  Dionysius  the 
Second  ascended  the  throne  he  banished  Dion, 
who  collected  some  forces,  and  in  three  days 
made  himself  master  of  Syracuse. 

Di  on  Cas'sius.  A  native  of  Nicsea  in  Bithynia. 
who  was  raised  to  some  of  the  greatest  offices  of 
state  in  the  Roman  empire.  He  is  celebrated 
as  the  writer  of  a  history  of  Rome  which 
occupied  him  twelve  years  in  composing. 

Dionysius  the  Elder  Avas  son  of  Hermocrates. 
He  signalized  himself  in  the  w^ars  which  the 
Syracusans  carried  on  against  Carthage,  and 
made  himself  absolute  at  Syracuse.  His 
tyranny  rendered  him  odious  to  his  subjects. 
He  made  a  subterraneous  cave  in  a  rock  in  the 
form  of  a  human  ear,  which  was  called  "the 
Ear  of  Dionysius."  The  sounds  of  this  cave 
were  all  directed  to  one  common  tympanum, 
which  had  a  communication  with  an  adjoining 
room,  where  Dionysius  spent  part  of  his  time 


in  listening  to  what  was  said  by  those  whom 
he  had  imprisoned.  He  died  in  the  sixty- 
third  year  of  his  age,  B.C.  368,  after  a  reign  of 
thirty-eight  years. 

Dionys'ius  the  Younger  was  son  of  Dionysius  the 
First  and  Doris.  He  succeeded  his  father, 
and  as  soon  as  he  ascended  the  throne  he  in- 
vited Plato  to  his  court  and  studied  under  him 
for  some  time.  Plato  advised  him  to  lay 
aside  the  supreme  power,  in  which  he  was 
supported  by  Dion.  This  highly  incensed 
Dionysius,  who  banished  Dion,  who  collected 
forces  in  Greece,  and  in  three  days  rendered 
himself  master  of  Syracuse,  and  expelled  the 
tyrant,  B.C.  357.  He,  however,  recovered 
Syracuse  ten  years  afterward,  but  was  soon 
compelled  to  retire  again  by  the  Corinthians 
under  Timoleon. 

Dionys'ius,  of  Halicarnassus.  A  historian  who 
left  his  country  and  came  to  reside  in  Rome 
that  he  might  study  all  the  authors  who  had 
written  Roman  history.  He  was  occupied  dur- 
ing twenty-four  years  on  his  work  on  Roman 
antiquities,  which  consisted  of  twenty  books. 

Dir'ce.  A  woman  whom  Lycus,  king  of  Thebes, 
married  after  he  had  divorced  Antiope.  Am- 
phion  and  Zethus,  sons  of  Antiope,  for  cruel- 
ties she  practiced  on  Antiope,  tied  Dirce  to 
the  tail  of  a  wild  bull,  by  which  she  was 
dragged  over  rocks  and  precipices  till  the  gods 
pitied  her  and  changed  her  into  a  fountain. 

Discor  dia.     A  malevolent  deity,  daughter  of  Nox, 


and  sister  to  Nemesis,  the  Parcae,  and  Death. 
She  was  driven  from  heaven  by  Jupiter  be- 
cause she  sowed  dissensions  among  the  gods. 
At  the  nuptials  of  Peleus  and  Thetis  she  threw 
an  apple  among  the  gods,  inscribed  with  the 
words,  Detur  pulchriori,  which  was  the  pri- 
mary cause  of  the  ruin  of  Troy,  and  of  infinite 
misfortunes  to  the  Greeks, 

Dolabel'la,  P.  Corn.  A  Roman  who  married  the 
daughter  of  Cicero.  During  the  civil  wars  he 
warmly  espoused  the  cause  of  Julius  Caesar, 
whom  he  accompanied  at  the  famous  battles 
of  Pharsalia  and  Munda. 

Domitia'nus,  Ti  tus  Flavins,  son  of  Vespasian 
and  Flavia  Domitilla,  made  himself  emperor 
of  Rome  on  the  death  of  his  brother  Titus, 
whom,  according  to  some  accounts,  he  de- 
stroyed by  poison.  The  beginning  of  his 
reign  promised  hopefully,  but  Domitian  be- 
came cruel,  an(J  gave  way  to  vicious  indul- 
gences. In  the  latter  part  of  his  reign  he  be- 
came suspicious  and  remorseful.  He  was 
assassinated  a.d.  96,  in  his  forty-fifth  year. 

Dra'co.  A  celebrated  lawgiver  of  Athens,  who 
made  a  code  of  laws,  b.c.  623,  which,  on  ac- 
count of  their  severity,  were  said  to  be  written 
in  letters  of  blood.  Hence  the  term  "Dra- 
conic,"  applied  to  any  punishment  of  excep- 
tional severity. 

Dni'sus.  A  son  of  Tiberius  and  Vipsania,  who 
became  famous  for  his  courage  displayed  in 
Illyricum  and  Pannonia. 


Dru'sus,  M.  Liv'ius.  A  celebrated  Roman,  who 
renewed  the  puoposals  bearing  on  the  Agra- 
rian laws,  which  had  proved  fatal  to  the 

Dru'sus,  Nero  Claudius.  A  son  of  Tiberius  Nero 
and  Livia.  He  distinguished  himself  in  the 
wars  in  Germany  and  Gaul,  and  was  honored 
with  a  triumph.  There  were  other  Romans 
of  the  same  name,  but  of  smaller  distinction. 

Dry'ades.  Nymphs  that  presided  over  the  woods. 
Oblations  of  milk,  oil,  and  honey  were  offered 
to  them.  Sometimes  the  votaries  of  the 
Dryads  sacrificed  a  goat  to  them. 

Duum'viri.  Two  patricians  at  Rome,  first  ap- 
pointed by  Tarquin  to  keep  the  Sibylline 
books,  which  were  supposed  to  contain  the 
fate  of  the  Roman  empire. 

Echo.  A  daughter  of  the  Air  and  Tellus,  who 
was  one  of  Juno's  attendants.  She  was  de- 
prived of  speech  by  Juno,  but  was  allowed  to 
reply  to  questions  put  to  her. 

Ege'ria.  A  nymph  of  Aricia  in  Italy,  where 
Diana  was  particularly  worshiped.  Egeria 
was  courted  by  Numa.  and,  according  to 
Ovid,  became  his  wife.  Ovid  says  that  she 
was  disconsolate  at  the  death  of  Numa,  and 
that  she  wept  so  violently  that  Diana  changed 
her  into  a  fountain.  Lord  Byron,  in  the 
fourth  canto  of  "Childe  Harold,"  has  a  beau- 
tiful invocation  to  the  nymph,  while  describ- 
ing the  fountain  of  Egeria  : — 

78  CXASSICAL    J)r:tionary 

"Here  did'st  thou  sit  in  this  enchanted  cover, 
Egeria  !  thy  all  heavenly  bosotr^  beating 
For  the  far  footsteps  of  thy  mortal  lover; 
The  purple  midnight  veil  d  that  mystic  meeting 
With  her  most  starr}'  canopy,  and  seating 
Thyself  by  thine  adorer,  what  befel  ? 
This  cave  was  surely  shap'd  out  for  the  greeting 
Of  an  enamor'd  goddess,  and  the  cell 

Haunted  by  holy  love— the  earliest  oracle!" 

Elec'tra.  A  daughter  of  Agamemnon,  king  of 
Argos.  She  incited  her  brother  Orestes  to 
revenge  his  father's  death  by  assassinating 
his  mother  Clytemnestra.  Her  adventures 
and  misfortunes  form  the  subject  of  one  of  the 
finest  of  the  tragedies  of  Sophocles. 

Eleusin'ia.  A  great  festival  observed  by  the 
Lacedaemonians,  Cretans,  and  others,  every 
fourth  year,  and  by  the  people  of  Athens 
every  fifth  year,  at  Eleusis  in  Attica,  where 
it  was  introduced  by  Eumolpus,  b.c,  1356.  It 
was  the  most  celebrated  of  all  the  religious 
ceremonies  of  Greece.  The  term  "  Mysteries" 
is  often  applied  to  it.  The  expression  "Eleu- 
sinian  mysteries,"  as  applied  to  anything  that 
is  inexplicable,  has  become  proverbial. 

Elys'ium.  The  Elysian  Fields,  a  place  in  the  in- 
fernal regions,  where,  according  to  the  an- 
cients, the  souls  of  the  virtuous  existed  after 

Emped'ocles.  A  philosopher,  poet,  and  historian 
of  Agrigentum  in  Sicily,  who  lived  444  b.c. 
He  was  a  Pythagorean,  and  warmly  espoused 
the  belief  in  the  transmigration  of  souls. 


Endym  ion.  A  shepherd,  son  of  ^thlius  and 
Calyce.  He  is  said  to  have  required  of  Jupi- 
ter that  he  might  be  ahva5'S  young.  Diana 
saw  him  as  he  slept  on  Mount  Latmos,  and 
was  so  struck  with  his  beauty  that  she  came 
down  from  heaven  every  night  to  visit  him. 

En'nius.  An  ancient  poet,  born  in  Calabria.  He 
obtained  the  privileges  of  a  Roman  citizen  on 
account  of  his  learning  and  genius. 

Eos.     The  name  of  Aurora  among  the  Greeks. 

Epaminon  das.  A  famous  Theban  descended 
from  the  ancient  kings  of  Boeotia.  At  the 
head  of  the  Theban  armies  he  defeated  the 
Spartans  at  the  celebrated  battle  of  Leuctra 
about  370  B.C.  He  was  killed  in  battle  in  the 
forty-eighth  year  of  his  age. 

Eph'esus.  A  city  of  Ionia,  famous  for  a  temple 
of  Diana,  which  was  considered  to  be  one  of 
the  seven  wonders  of  the  world. 

Epicte'tus.  A  Stoic  philosopher  of  Hieropolis. 
originally  the  slave  of  Epaphroditus.  the 
freedman  of  Nero.  He  supported  the  doctrine 
of  the  immortality  of  the  soul. 

Epicurus.  A  celebrated  philosopher,  born  in 
Attica  of  obscure  parents.  He  distinguished 
himself  at  school  by  the  brilliancy  of  his  ge- 
nius. He  taught  that  the  happiness  of  man- 
kind consisted  in  pleasure,  which  arises  from 
mental  enjoyment,  and  the  sweets  of  virtue. 
His  death  occurred  270  b.c.  .  his  age  being 
seventy-two  years. 

Er'ato.     One  of  the  Muses.     She  presided  over 


lyric  poetry,  and  is  represented  as  crowned 
with  roses  and  myrtle,  and  holding  a  lyre  in 
her  hand. 

Er'ebus.  A  deity  of  the  infernal  regions,  son  of 
Chaos  and  Darkness.  The  poets  often  use 
the  word  to  signify  the  infernal  regions. 

Ete'ocles.  A  king  of  Thebes,  son  of  Qj^dipns  and 
Jocasta.  After  his  father's  death  it  was 
agreed  between  him  and  his  brother  Polynices 
that  they  should  reign  a  year  each  alternately, 
Eteocles  first  ascended  the  throne,  but  at  the 
end  of  the  year  he  refused  to  resign  the  crown 
Thus  treated,  Polynices  implored  assistance* 
from  Adrastus,  king  of  Argos,  whose  daugh  ■ 
ter  he  married,  and  who  placed  an  army  a'; 
his  disposal.  Eteocles  marshaled  his  forces, 
and  several  skirmishes  took  place  between  th?) 
hostile  hosts,  when  it  was  agreed  on  that  the, 
brothers  should  decide  the  contest  by  single; 
combat.  They  fought  with  inveterate  fury, 
and  both  were  killed. 

Eucli'des.  A  famous  mathematician  of  Alexan- 
dria, who  lived  r.c.  300.  He  wrote  fifteen 
books  on  the  elements  of  mathematics.  Eu- 
clid was  so  much  respected  that  King  Ptolemy 
became  one  of  his  pupils. 

Eu'menes.  A  Greek  officer  in  the  army  of  Alex- 
ander. He  was  the  most  worthy  of  all  Alex- 
ander's generals  to  succeed  him  after  his 
death.  He  conquered  Paphlagonia  and  Cap- 
padocia,  of  which  he  obtained  the  government, 
till  the  power  of  Antigonus  obliged  him   to 



retire.  Eventually,  after  many  vicissitudes 
of  fortune,  he  was  put  to  death  in  prison  by 
order  of  Antigonus. 

Eumen'ides.  A  name  given  to  the  Furies.  They 
sprang  from  the  drops  of  blood  which  flowed 
from  a  wound  which  Coelus  received  from 
Saturn.  According  to  some  writers  they 
were  daughters  of  the  Earth,  and  sprung 
from  the  blood  of  Saturn.  Others  make  them 
to  be  daughters  of  Acheron  and  Night,  or 
Pluto  and  Proserpine.  According  to  the  gen- 
erally received  opinion  they  were  three  in 
number — Tisiphone.  Megara,  and  Alecto,  to 
which  some  add  Nemesis. 

Euphor'bus.  A  famous  Trojan.  He  wounded 
Patroclus,  whom  Hector  killed.  He  died  by 
the  hand  of  Menelaus. 

Euphrates.  A  large  river  in  Asia  which  flowed 
through  the  middle  of  the  city  of  Babylon. 

Eurip  ides.  A  celebrated  tragic  poet  born  at  Sal- 
amis.  He  studied  eloquence  under  Prodicus, 
ethics  under  Socrates,  and  philosophy  under 
Anaxagoras.  He  often  retired  to  a  solitary 
cave,  where  he  wrote  his  tragedies.  It  is  said 
that  he  met  his  death  by  being  attacked  and 
torn  in  pieces  by  dogs,  407  years  before  the 
Christian  era,  in  the  seventy-eighth  year  of 
his  age.  He  is  accredited  with  the  authorship 
of  seventy- five  tragedies,  of  which  only  nine- 
teen are  extant.  One  of  his  plays,  "Ion."  has 
become  familiarized  in  name  to  general  read- 
ers by  the  exquisite  play  thus  called  written 


by  the  late  Judge  Talfourd,  and  first  acted  at 
Covent  Garden  theatre,  London,  May  26,  1836. 

Euro  pa.  A  daughter  of  Agenor,  king  of  Phoeni- 
cia, and  Telaphassa.  Her  beauty  attracted 
Jupiter,  and  to  become  possessed  of  her  he 
assumed  the  shape  of  a  handsome  bull,  and 
mingled  with  the  herds  of  Agenor  while  Eu- 
ropa  was  gathering  flowers  in  the  meadows. 
She  caressed  the  animal,  and  mounted  on  his 
back.  The  god  crossed  the  sea  with  her,  and 
arrived  in  Crete,  where  he  assumed  his  proper 
form,  and  declared  his  love.  She  became 
mother  of  Minos,  Sarpedon,  and  Rhadaman- 

Euryd'ice.  The  wife  of  the  poet  Orpheus.  As 
she  fled  from  Aristaeus,  who  was  enamored 
with  her,  she  was  bit  by  a  serpent,  and  died 
of  the  wound.  Orpheus  was  disconsolate  at 
her  loss,  and  descended  to  the  infernal  regions 
in  search  of  her,  and  by  the  melody  of  his 
lyre  he  obtained  from  Pluto  the  restoration  of 
Eurydice,  provided  he  did  not  look  behind 
him  till  he  reached  the  earth  ;  but  his  eager- 
ness to  see  his  wife  caused  him  to  violate  the 
conditions,  and  he  looked  behind  him,  thus 
losing  Eurydice  for  ever. 

Euryd  ice.  Wife  of  Amyntas,  king  of  Macedonia. 
Alexander.  Perdiccas,  and  Philip  were  their 
sons,  and  they  had  a  daughter  named  Eury- 
one.  She  conspired  against  Amyntas.  but 
was  prevented  from  killing  him  by  Euryone. 

Eurys  thenes.     A  son  of  Aristodemus.  who  lived 


in  perpetual  dissension  with  his  twin  brother 
Procles  while  they  both  sat  on  the  Spartan 
throne.  The  descendants  of  Eurysthenes 
were  called  Eurysthenidtc,  and  those  of  Pro- 
cles Proclidse. 

Eurys'theus.  A  king  of  Argos  and  Mycenae,  son 
of  Sthenelus  and  Nicippe.  Juno  hastened  his 
birth  by  two  months  that  he  might  come  into 
the  world  before  Hercules,  the  son  of  Alc- 
mena,  as  the  younger  of  the  two  was  doomed 
by  Jupiter  to  be  subservient  to  the  other. 
This  natural  right  was  cruelly  exercised  by 
Eurystheus,  who  was  jealous  of  the  fame  of 
Hercules,  and  who,  to  destroy  him,  imposed 
upon  him  the  most  dangerous  enterprises, 
known  as  the  Twelve  Labors  of  Hercules,  all 
of  which  were  successfully  accomplished. 

Euse'bius.  A  bishop  of  Caesarea,  in  favor  with 
the  Emperor  Constantine.  He  was  mixed  up 
in  the  theological  disputes  of  Arius  and  Atha- 
nasius,  and  distinguished  himself  by  writing 
an  ecclesiastical  history  and  other  works. 

Euterpe.  One  of  the  Muses,  daughter  of  Jupiter 
and  Mnemosyne.     She  presided  over  music. 

Eutro'pius.  A  Latin  historian  in  the  age  of 
Julian.  He  wrote  an  epitome  of  the  history 
of  Rome  from  the  age  of  Romulus  to  the 
reign  of  the  emperor  Valens. 

Fa'bii.  A  noble  and  powerful  family  at  Rome. 
They  fought  with  the  Veientes.  and  all  of 
them  were  slain.     One  of  the  family,  of  ten- 


der  age,  remained  in  Rome,  and  from  him 
descended  the  family  which  afterwards  became 
so  distinguished. 

Fa'bius,  Max  imus  Rullia  nus,  was  the  first  of  the 
Fabii  who  obtained  the  name  of  "Maximus." 
He  was  master  of  the  horse,  and  his  victory 
over  the  Samnites  in  that  capacity  nearly  cost 
him  his  life.  He  was  five  times  consul,  twice 
dictator,  and  once  censor. 

Fa'bius,  Q.  Max  imus.  A  celebrated  Roman  who 
was  raised  to  the  highest  offices  of  state.  In 
his  first  consulship  he  obtained  a  victory  over 
Liguria,  and  the  battle  of  Thrasymenus  caused 
his  election  to  the  dictatorship.  In  this  office 
he  opposed  Hannibal,  harassing  him  more  by 
counter-marches  and  ambuscades  than  by 
fighting  in  the  open  field.  He  died  at  the  age 
of  one  hundred,  after  being  consul  five  times. 
Others  of  the  family  were  of  minor  distinc- 
tion, though  their  names  occur  in  Roman 

Fabric  ius,  Cai'us.  A  distinguished  Roman  who 
ill  his  first  consulship  obtained  several  victor- 
ies over  the  Samnites  and  Lucanians.  He 
had  the  most  consummate  knowledge  of  mili- 
tary matters,  and  was  distinguished  for  the 
simplicity  of  his  manners. 

Faler'nus.  A  fertile  mountain  and  plain  of  Cam- 
pania, famous  for  its  wine.  Falernian  wine 
was  held  in  great  esteem  by  the  Romans,  and 
it  is  often  alluded  to  by  the  poets. 

Fau'ni.     Rural  deities  represented  as  having  the 


legs,  feet,  and  ears  of  goats,  and  the  rest  of 
the  body  human. 

Flac  cus.  A  consul  who  marched  against  Sj'lla 
and  was  assassinated. 

Flamin  ius,  T,  Q.  A  famous  Roman  who  was 
trained  in  the  art  of  war  against  Hannibal. 
He  was  sent  in  command  of  the  Roman  troops 
against  Philip  of  Macedonia,  and  met  with 
great  success. 

Flora.  The  goddess  of  flowers  and  gardens 
among  the  Romans.  She  was  the  same  as 
the  Chloris  of  the  Greeks. 

Fortu  na.  A  powerful  deity  among  the  ancients, 
daughter  of  Oceanus  according  to  Homer,  or 
one  of  the  Parcae  according  to  Pindar.  She 
was  the  goddess  of  Fortune,  and  bestowed 
riches  or  poverty  on  mankind. 

Ful'via.  An  ambitious  woman,  wife  of  the  tribune 
Clodius,  afterward  of  Curio,  and  lastly  of  An- 
tony. Antony  divorced  her  for  Cleopatra. 
She  attempted  to  avenge  her  wrongs  by  per- 
suading Augustus  to  take  up  arms  against 

Galatae'a.  A  sea  nymph,  daughter  of  Nereus  and 
Doris.  She  was  loved  by  Polyphemus,  the 
Cyclops,  whom  she  treated  with  disdain, 
while  she  was  in  love  with  Acis,  a  shepherd 
of  Sicily. 

Gal'ba,  Ser'vius  Sulpi  cius.  A  Roman  who  rose 
to  the  greatest  offices  of  the  state,  and  exer- 
cised his  powers  with  equity  till  he  was  seated 


on  the  throne,  when  his  virtues  disappeared. 
He  was  assassinated  in  the  seventy-third  year 
of  his  age. 

Gallie  nus,  Pub.  Licin  ius,  A  son  of  the  emperor 
Valerian.  He  reigned  conjointly  with  his 
father  for  seven  years,  and  then  became  sole 
emperor,  a.d.  260.  In  his  youth  he  showed 
military  ability  in  an  expedition  against  the 
Germans  and  Sarmatse,  but  when  possessed  of 
the  purple  he  gave  himself  up  to  pleasure  and 
vice.  He  was  assassinated  in  his  fiftieth  year. 
A.D.  268. 

Gal'lus,  Corne  lius.  A  Roman  knight  famous  for 
his  poetical  as  well  as  his  military  talents. 
He  was  greatly  attached  to  his  slave  Lycoris 
(or  Cytheris).  whose  beauty  he  extolled  in  his 

Ganyme'des.  A  beautiful  youth  of  Phrygia.  He 
was  taken  to  heaven  by  Jupiter  while  tending 
flocks  on  Mount  Ida,  and  he  became  the  cup- 
bearer of  the  gods  in  place  of  Hebe. 

Gel'lius  Au'lus.  A  Roman  grammarian  in  the 
age  of  M.  Antoninus.  He  wrote  a  work  called 
"Noctes  Atticse."  which  he  composed  at 

German'icus  Cae  sar,  A  son  of  Drusus  and  An- 
tonia,  the  niece  of  Augustus.  He  was  raised 
to  the  most  important  position  in  the  state, 
and  was  employed  in  war  in  Germany,  where 
his  successes  obtained  him  a  triumph.  He 
was  secretly  poisoned,  a.d.  19,  in  the  thirty- 
fourth  year  of  his  age.     He  has  been  com- 


mended  not  only  for  his  military  talents  but 
for  his  learning  and  humanity. 

Ge'ryon.  A  monster,  represented  by  the  poets  as 
having  three  bodies  and  three  heads.  It  was 
killed  by  Hercules. 

Gigan  tes.  The  sons  of  Coelus  and  Terra,  who, 
according  to  Hesiod,  sprang  from  the  blood  of 
a  wound  inflicted  on  Coelus  by  his  son  Saturn. 
They  are  represented  as  huge  giants,  with 
strength  in  accordance  with  their  size. 

Glau'cus.  A  son  of  Hippolochus,  the  son  of  Bel- 
lerophon.  He  aided  Priam  in  the  Trojan 
war,  and  was  noted  for  his  folly  in  exchang- 
ing his  golden  armor  with  Diomedes  for  an 
iron  one. 

Glau  cus.  A  fisherman  of  Boeotia.  He  observed 
that  the  fishes  which  he  caught  and  laid  on 
the  grass  became  invigorated  and  leaped  into 
the  sea.  He  tasted  the  grass,  and  suddenly 
felt  a  desire  to  live  in  the  sea.  He  was  made 
a  sea  deity  by  Oceanus  and  Tethys. 

Glaucus.  A  son  of  Minos  the  Second  and  Pasiphaj, 
who  was  smothered  in  a  cask  of  honey.  The 
soothsayer  Polyidus,  on  being  commanded  by 
Minos  to  find  his  son,  discovered  him,  and  by 
rubbing  his  body  with  a  certain  herb  restored 
him  to  life. 

Gordianus,  M.  Anto'nius  Africa  nus.  Son  of 
Metius  Marcellus.  He  applied  himself  to 
poetry,  and  composed  a  poem  in  thirty  books. 
He  was  sent  as  proconsul  to  Africa,  and  sub- 
sequently, when  he  had  attained  his  eighti- 


eth  year,  he  was  proclaimed  emperor.  He 
strangled  himself  at  Carthage  a.d.  236,  and 
was  deeply  lamented  by  the  army  and  the 

Gordia'nus,  M.  Anto  nius  Africa  nus,  son  of  Gor- 
dianus,  was  made  prefect  of  Rome,  and  af- 
terward consul  by  Alexander  Severus.  He 
was  elected  emperor  in  conjunction  with  his 
father.  He  was  killed  in  a  battle  fought  with 
Maximinus  in  Mauritania. 

Gordia'nus,  M.  Anto'nius  Pius,  was  grandson  of 
the  first  Gordian.  He  was  proclaimed  em- 
peror in  the  sixteenth  year  of  his  age.  He 
married  the  daughter  of  Misetheus,  who  was 
distinguished  by  his  virtues,  and  to  whom 
Gordian  entrusted  many  of  the  chief  offices  of 
the  state.  Gordian  conquered  Sapor,  king  of 
Persia,  and  took  many  cities  from  him.  He 
was  assassinated  a.d.  244. 

Gor'dius.  A  Phrygian  who,  from  the  position  of 
a  peasant,  was  raised  to  the  throne  consequent 
on  a  prediction  of  the  oracle.  The  knot  which 
tied  the  yoke  to  the  draught-tree  of  his  chariot 
was  made  so  cunningly  that  the  ends  of  the 
cord  could  not  be  seen,  and  a  report  arose  that 
the  empire  of  Asia  was  promised  by  the  oracle 
to  him  Avho  should  untie  the  Gordian  knot. 
Alexander  cut  the  knot  with  his  sword. 

Gor'gones  (the  Gorgons).  Three  sisters,  daugh- 
ters of  Phorcys  and  Ceto,  whose  names  were 
Stheno,  Euryale,  and  Medusa.  They  pos- 
sessed the  power  of  turning  into  stone  those 


on  whom  they  looked.  Perseus  attacked  them 
and  cut  off  Medusa's  head,  which  he  gave  to 
Minerva,  who  placed  it  on  her  aegis,  which 
turned  into  stone  those  who  fixed  their  eyes 
on  it. 

Grac  chus,  T.  Sempronius,  was  twice  consul  and 
once  censor.  He  married  Cornelia,  of  the 
family  of  the  Scipios,  a  woman  of  piety  and 
learning.  Their  children ,  Tiberius  and  Caius, 
rendered  themselves  famous  for  their  obstinate 
attachment  to  the  interests  of  the  populace, 
which  at  last  proved  fatal  to  them.  The 
Gracchi  stand  out  conspicuously  in  Roman 
annals.  The  history  of  Caius  Gracchus  has 
been  dramatized  by  James  Sheridan  Knowles. 
It  was  one  of  his  earliest  efforts  in  dramatic 
literature,  and  has  long  been  obsolete  as  an 
acting  play. 

Gymnasium.  A  place  among  the  Greeks  where 
all  the  public  exercises  were  performed,  and 
where  not  only  dancers  and  wrestlers  exhib- 
ited, but  where  poets  and  philosophers  re- 
peated their  compositions. 

Ha  des,  see  Ades. 

Halicarnas'sus.  A  maritime  city  in  Asia  Minor, 
where  a  mausoleum,  one  of  the  seven  wonders 
of  the  world,  was  erected.  It  is  celebrated  as 
being  the  birthplace  of  Herodotus,  Dionysius, 
and  Heraclitus. 

Hamadry'ades.  Nymphs  who  lived  in  the  country 
and  presided  over  trees. 


Hamil  car.  A  famous  Carthaginian,  father  of 
Hannibal.  He  was  engaged  in  Sicily  during 
the  first  Punic  war.  He  used  to  say  of  his 
three  sons  that  he  kept  three  lions  to  devour 
the  Roman  power. 

Hannibal.  A  celebrated  Carthaginian  general, 
son  of  Hamilcar.  While  a  child  he  took  a 
solemn  oath  never  to  be  at  peace  with  Rome. 
His  passage  of  the  Alps  with  a  great  army 
was  achieved  by  softening  the  rocks  with  fire 
and  vinegar,  so  that  even  his  armed  elephants 
descended  the  mountains  without  difficulty. 
He  defeated  the  Romans  in  the  great  battle 
of  Cannae,  but  was  subsequently  conquered 
by  Scipio  at  Zama.  He  died  by  poison  taken 
from  a  ring  in  which  he  kept  it  concealed. 
This  occurred  in  his  seventieth  year,  about 
1 82  years  b.c. 

Harmo'dius.  A  friend  of  Aristogiton  who  as- 
sisted in  delivering  his  country  from  the  tyr- 
anny of  the  PisistratidcE. 

Harpy'lae.  The  Harpies,  winged  monsters  who 
had  the  face  of  a  woman,  the  body  of  a  vul- 
ture, and  feet  and  fingers  armed  with  claws. 
They  were  three  in  number — Aello,  Ocypete, 
and  Celeno.  They  were  daughters  of  Nep- 
tune and  Terra. 

Has  drubal.  A  son  of  Hamilcar  and  brother  of 
Hannibal.  He  crossed  the  Alps  and  entered 
Italy,  where  he  was  defeated  by  the  consuls, 
M.  Livius  Salinator  and  Claudius  Nero.  He 
was  killed  in  the  battle  h.c.  207,  and  his  head 


was  sent  to  Hannibal.  One  of  the  finest  pas- 
sages in  Professor  Nichol's  tragedy  of  Han- 
nibal is  the  invocation  over  Hasdrubal's  head 
at  the  close  of  the  play. 

Hebe.  A  daughter  of  Jupiter  and  Juno.  She 
was  made  cupbearer  to  the  gods,  but  was 
dismissed  from  the  office  by  Jupiter,  because 
she  fell  down  in  a  clumsy  posture  as  she  was 
pouring  out  nectar  at  a  festival,  and  Gany- 
medes  succeeded  her  as  cupbearer. 

Hec  ate.  A  daughter  of  Perses  and  Asteria.  She 
was  called  Luna  in  heaven,  Diana  on  earth, 
and  Hecate  or  Proserpine  in  hell. 

Hec  tor,  son  of  King  Priam  and  Hecuba,  was  the 
most  valiant  of  all  the  Trojan  chiefs  who 
fought  against  the  Greeks.  He  married  An- 
dromache, the  daughter  of  Eetion,  Astyanax 
being  their  son.  Hector  was  made  chief  of 
the  Trojan  forces  when  Troy  was  besieged  by 
the  Greeks,  and  it  is  said  that  thirty-one  of 
the  most  valiant  Greek  chiefs  were  killed  by 
him,  but  when  he  met  Achilles  he  fled. 
Achilles  pursued  him,  and  Hector  was  killed, 
and  his  body  dragged  in  triumph  at  the  char- 
iot wheels  of  the  conqueror. 

Hec'uba,  daughter  of  Dymas,  a  Phrygian  prince, 
or,  according  to  some,  of  Cisseus,  a  Thracian 
king,  was  the  second  wnfe  of  Priam,  king  of 
Troy.  When  her  son  Paris  was  born,  she  ex- 
posed him  on  Mount  Ida,  hoping  he  would 
perish,  as  the  soothsayers  had  predicted  that 
he  would  be  the  ruin  of  his  country.     In  the 


Trojan  war  she  saw  most  of  her  children  per- 
ish. After  enduring  many  misfortunes,  she 
threw  herself  into  the  sea,  and  was  drowned. 
Hel'ena.  One  of  the  most  beautiful  women  in  the 
age  in  which  she  lived.  Her  beauty  was  so 
universally  admired,  even  in  her  infancy, 
that  Theseus,  with  his  friend  Pirithous,  car- 
ried her  away  when  she  was  ten  years  of  age 
and  concealed  her  with  his  mother,  but  she 
was  recovered  by  Castor  and  Pollux,  and  re- 
stored to  her  native  country.  She  married 
Menelaus,  son  of  Atreus,  but  when  Paris  vis- 
ited Menelaus  he  persuaded  her  to  fly  with 
him  to  Troy,  b.c.  iigS.  On  this,  Menelaus 
sent  ambassadors  to  the  court  of  Priam  to  de- 
mand her  restitution,  but  in  vain,  and  the 
result  was  the  Trojan  war.  When  Troy  was 
taken  she  returned  to  Menelaus,  and  after  his 
death  she  retired  to  Rhodes,  where  she  was 
strangled  by  order  of  Polyxo,  who  reigned 
there.  Her  beauty  and  misfortunes  have  been 
a  theme  for  the  poets  in  all  ages  :  one  of  them 
thus  speaks  of  her  : — 

"  Possess'd  of  all  those  glowing  cliarms, 
That  fir'd  the  Trojan  boy, 
And  kindled  love  with  war's  alarms 
Around  the  walls  of  Troy." 

Hel  icon.  A  mountain  of  B(£otia  on  the  borders 
of  Phocis.  II  was  sacred  to  the  Muses,  who 
had  a  temple  there.  The  fountain  Hippo- 
crene  flowed  from  this  mountain. 


Heliogab  alus,  M.  Aure  lius  Antoni  us.     A  Roman 
emperor  who  had  been  priest  to  a  divinity  in 
Phoenicia.     Under  his  sway  Rome  became  the 
scene   of  cruelty   and   vice.      He   raised    his 
horse  to   the    honors   of   consulship,  and   in- 
dulged in  a  number  of  absurdities  which  ren- 
dered him  odious  to  his  subjects.     His  head 
was  cut  off  by  his  soldiers  a.d.  222. 
Hel'le.     A   daughter   of   Athamas   and   Nephele. 
She  fled  from  her  father's  house  to  avoid  the 
oppression  of  her  mother-in-law  Ino.     Accord- 
ing to  some  accounts,  she  was  carried  through 
the   air   on  a  golden   ram,   when,   becoming 
giddy,  she  fell   into  the  sea,  which  received 
from  her  the  name  Hellespont. 
Hellespon'tus.     A  narrow  strait  between  Europe 
and    Asia,    which    received    its    name    from 
Helle,  who  is  said  to  have  been  drowned  in 
it.     It  is  celebrated  as  being  the  scene  of  the 
love  and  death  of  Leander. 
Heracli'tus.     A  celebrated  Greek  philosopher  of 
Ephesus,  who  lived  about  500  years  before  the 
Christian  era.     He  received  the  appellation 
of  the  Obscure  Philosopher  and  the  Mourner, 
from  his  custom  of  weeping  at  the  follies  and 
frailties  of  human  life. 
Herculaneum.     A  town  of  Campania  swallowed 
up  by  an  earthquake,  produced  by  an  eruption 
of  Mount  Vesuvius,  a.d.  79. 
■  Hercules.     A  celebrated  hero  who,  after  death, 
was  ranked  among  the  gods.     According  to 
the  ancients  there  were  many  persons  of  th© 


same  name,  but  the  son  of  Jupiter  and  Alc- 
•\nena,  generally  called  the  Theban,  is  the 
most  celebrated.  The  birth  of  Hercules  was 
attended  with  many  miraculous  events.  Be- 
fore he  was  eight  months  old  Juno  sent  two 
snakes  to  devour  him,  which  he  seized,  and 
crushed  them  to  death.  He  achieved  a  series 
of  enterprises  known  as  the  "Twelve  Labors 
of  Hercules."  These  comprised  the  slaugh- 
ter of  the  Nemaean  lion,  the  destruction  of  the 
Lernsean  hydra,  the  catching  of  a  stag  having 
golden  horns  and  remarkable  for  his  swift- 
ness, the  seizing  alive  a  wild  boar  which  com- 
mitted great  ravages,  the  cleansing  of  the 
stables  of  Augias,  the  killing  of  the  carnivo- 
rous birds  near  Lake  Stymphalis,  the  taking 
captive  a  prodigious  wild  bull,  the  obtaining 
the  mares  of  Diomedes  which  fed  on  human 
flesh,  the  getting  possession  of  the  girdle  of 
the  queen  of  the  Amazons,  the  destruction  of 
the  monster  Geryon,  the  obtaining  the  apples 
from  the  garden  of  the  Hesperides,  and  the 
bringing  to  the  earth  the  three-headed  dog 
Cerberus.  Besides  these  labors  he  aided  the 
gods  in  their  wars  with  the  giants,  and  per- 
formed numerous  difficult  feats.  He  was  con- 
ducted by  Mercury  to  Omphale,  queen  of 
Lydia,  whom  he  married,  and  whom  he  per- 
mitted to  dress  in  his  armor  while  he  was  sit- 
ting to  spin  with  her  female  servants.  He 
delivered  Dejanira  from  the  Centaur  Nessiis, 
whom  he  killed.     The  Centaur,  as  he  expired, 


•  gaveDejanira  a  mystic  tunic,  which,  m  a 
jealous  paroxysm,  she  gave  to  Hercules  to 
put  on,  which  he  had  no  sooner  done  than  he 
was  seized  with  a  desperate  distemper  which 
was  incurable.  He  erected  a  burning  pile  on 
Mount  ^Eta.  on  which  he  cast  himself.  Jupi- 
ter surrounded  the  burning  pile  with  smoke, 
amidst  which  Hercules,  after  his  mortal  parts 
were  consumed,  was  carried  to  heaven  in  a 
chariot  drawn  by  four  horses. 

Hermes.     A  name  of  Mercury  among  the  Greeks. 

Herminius.  A  valiant  Roman  who  defended  the 
bridge  with  Codes  against  the  army  of  Por- 
senna.  Lord  Macaulay,  in  his  noble  poem 
"Horatius, "  alludes  to  him  as  one  of  the 
•'dauntless  three"  who  defended  the  bridge 
against  the  host  of  Porsenna — 

"  And  out  spake  strong  Herminius, 
Of  Titian  blood  was  he, 
'I  will  abide  on  thy  left  side, 

And  keep  the  bridge  with  thee.'  " 

Hermi'one.  A  daughter  of  Mars  and  Venus  who 
married  Cadmus.  She  was  changed  into  a 
serpent,  and  placed  in  the  El5^sian  Fields. 

Hermi  one.  A  daughter  of  Menelaus  and  Helen. 
She  was  privately  promised  in  marriage  to 
Orestes,  the  son  of  Agamemnon,  but  her 
father,  ignorant  of  the  engagement,  gave  her 
hand  to  Pyrrhus,  the  son  of  Achilles,  whose 
services  he  had  experienced  in  the  Trojan 

Hermip'pus.     A   freedman,   disciple   of   Philo,   in 


the  reign  of  Adrian,  by  whom  he  was  greatly 
esteemed.     He  wrote  five  books  on  dreams. 

Hermoc  rates.  A  general  of  Syracuse,  who  was 
sent  against  the  Athenians.  His  lenity 
toward  the  Athenian  prisoners  was  regarded 
with  suspicion.  He  was  banished  from  Sicily, 
and  was  murdered  on  his  attempt  to  return  to 
his  country. 

Hermodo'rus.  A  philosopher  of  Ephesus  who  is 
said  to  have  assisted,  as  interpreter,  the  Ro- 
man decemvirs  in  the  composition  of  the  ten 
tables  of  laws  which  had  been  collected  in 

Hero.  A  beautiful  girl  of  Sestos  greatly  be- 
loved by  Leander,  a  youth  of  Abydos,  The 
lovers  were  greatly  attached  to  each  other, 
and  often  in  the  night  Leander  swam  across 
the  Hellespont  to  Hero  in  Sestos,  till  on  one 
tempestuous  night  he  was  drowned,  and  Hero 
in  despair  threw  herself  into  the  sea  and  per- 

Hero'des,  surnamed  the  Great,  followed  the  for- 
tunes of  Brutus  and  Cassius,  and  afterward 
those  of  Antony.  He  was  made  king  of  Judaea 
by  the  aid  of  Antony,  and  after  the  battle  of 
Actium  he  was  continued  in  power  by  submis- 
sion to  and  flattery  of  Augustus.  He  rendered 
himself  odious  by  his  cruelty,  and  as  he  knew 
his  death  would  be  a  cause  for  rejoicing,  he 
ordered  a  number  of  the  most  illustrious  of 
his  subjects  to  be  confined  and  murdered  di- 
rectly he  expired,  that  there  might  appear  to 


be  grief  and  shedding  of  tears  for  his  ovrn 
death.  Herod  died  in  the  seventieth  year  of 
his  age,  after  a  reign  of  40  years. 

Herodotus.  A  celebrated  historian  of  Plalicar- 
nassus.  He  ranks  among  historians  as  Homer 
does  among  the  poets  and  Demosthenes 
among  the  orators.  His  great  work  is  a  his- 
tory of  the  wars  of  the  Persians  against  the 
Greeks,  from  the  age  of  Cyrus  to  the  battle 
of  Mycale  in  the  reign  of  Xerxes ;  besides 
which  it  gives  an  account  of  many  celebrated 
nations.  A  life  of  Homer  is  attributed  to  his 
pen,  though  by  some  the  authorship  is  doubted. 

Hesi'odus.  A  celebrated  poet,  born  at  Ascia  in 
Boeotia.  He  lived  in  the  age  of  Homer,  and 
obtained  a  poetical  prize  in  competition  with 
him,  according  to  Varro  and  Plutarch.  Quin- 
tilian,  Philostratus,  and  others  maintain  that 
Hesiod  lived  before  the  age  of  Homer.  He- 
siod.  without  possessing  the  sublimity  of  Ho- 
mer, is  admired  for  the  elegance  of  his  diction. 

Hesi'one.  A  daughter  of  Laodemon,  king  of 
Troy.  It  was  her  fate  to  be  exposed  to  a  sea- 
monster,  to  whom  the  Trojans  presented 
yearly  a  young  girl  to  appease  the  resentment 
of  Apollo  and  Neptune,  whom  Laodemon  had 
offended.  Hercules  undertook  to  rescue  her, 
and  attacking  the  monster  just  as  he  was 
about  to  devour  her,  killed  him  with  his  club. 

Hesperides.  Three  Nymphs,  daughters  of  Hespe- 
rus. Apollodorus  mentions  four,  ^gle,  Ery- 
thia,  Vesta,  and  Arethusa.  They  were  ap- 


pointed  to  guard  the  golden  apples  which  Juno 
gave  to  Jupiter  on  the  day  of  their  marriage. 
The  place  where  the  Hesperides  lived  was  a 
celebrated  garden,  abounding  with  delicious 
fruit,  and  was  guarded  by  a  dragon  which 
never  slept.  It  was  one  of  the  labors  of  Her- 
cules to  procure  some  of  the  golden  apples, 
which  he  succeeded  in  doing  after  slaying  the 

Hieron'ymus.  A  tyrant  of  Sicily,  who  succeeded 
to  the  throne  when  he  was  fifteen  years  old. 
He  rendered  himself  odious  by  his  cruelty  and 

Hieron'ymus.  A  Christian  writer,  commonly 
called  St.  Jerome.  He  was  distinguished  for 
his  zeal  against  heretics.  He  wrote  com- 
mentaries on  the  prophets,  St.  Matthew's 
Gospel,  etc.  He  died  a.d.  420  in  his  eightieth 

Hippar'chus.  A  son  of  Pisistratus,  who  succeeded 
his  father,  as  tyrant  of  Athens,  with  his 
brother  Hippias.  He  patronized  some  of  the 
learned  men  of  his  age.  and  distinguished 
himself  for  his  love  of  literature. 

Hippocrates.  A  celebrated  physician  of  Cos. 
He  delivered  Athens  from  a  dreadful  pesti- 
lence in  the  beginning  of  the  Peloponnesian 
war,  for  which  he  was  rewarded  with  a  golden 
crown.  He  died  in  his  ninety-ninth  year. 
B.C.  361. 

Hippocre'ne.  A  fountain  of  Boeotia,  near  Mount 
Helicon,  sacred  to  the  Muses.     It  rose  from 


the   ground  when  struck   by  the  ieet  of  the 
horse  Pegasus. 

Hippodami'a.  A  daughter  of  CEnomaus,  king  of 
Pisa,  who  married  Pelops,  son  of  Tantalus. 
Her  father  would  marry  her  only  to  some  one 
who  should  conquer  him  in  a  chariot  race. 
Her  beauty  was  great,  and  many  were  compe- 
titors for  her  hand,  though  the  conditions  in- 
volved death  in  case  of  defeat  in  the  race. 
After  thirteen  suitors  had  been  defeated, 
Pelops  entered  the  lists,  and  by  bribing  the 
charioteer  of  CEnomaus,  obtained  the  victory 
and  married  Hippodamia. 

Hippolyte.  A  queen  of  the  Amazons,  given  in 
marriage  to  Theseus  by  Hercules.  Hippoly- 
tus  was  their  son. 

Hippolytus.  Son  of  Theseus  and  Hippolyte. 
His  stepmother  Phaedra  fell  in  love  with  him. 
He  fled  to  the  sea-shore,  where,  his  horses 
taking  fright  and  rushing  among  the  rocks, 
his  chariot  was  broken  in  pieces,  and  he  was 
killed.  According  to  some  accounts  he  was 
restored  to  life  by  Diana. 

Hippo'nax.  A  Greek  poet  born  at  Ephesus,  540 
years  before  the  Christian  era.  He  cultivated 
satirical  poetry,  which  was  marked  by  its 
beauty  and  vigor. 

Home'rus.  A  celebrated  Greek  poet,  the  most 
ancient  of  all  the  profane  writers.  The  age 
in  which  he  lived  is  not  known,  though  some 
suppose  it  to  be  about  168  years  after  the 
Trojan  war.     Uncertainty  prevails,   also,  as 


to  the  place  of  his  nativity,  seven  cities  claim- 
ing to  be  thus  honored.  These  are  Smyrna, 
Chios,  Colophon,  Salamis,  Rhodos,  Argos, 
and  Athena?.  In  his  two  famous  poems,  the 
Iliad  and  Odyssey,  he  has  displayed  the  most 
consummate  knowledge  of  human  nature,  and 
rendered  himself  immortal  by  the  sublimity 
and  elegance  of  his  poetry.  In  the  Iliad  he 
gives  a  narrative  of  the  siege  of  Troy,  and  the 
Odyssey  deals  with  the  wanderings  of  Ulysses 
after  the  fall  of  the  city.  Byron,  in  "The 
Bride  of  Abydos,  "  calls  him 

"  The  blind  old  man  of  Scio's  rocky  isle," 

thus  assuming  Chios  to  be  his  birthplace,  Scio 
being  the  modern  name  of  the  place.  Dry- 
den,  in  his  well-known  lines  commencing 

"  Three  poets  in  three  distant  ages  born," 

ranks  him  with  Virgil  and  Milton,  giving 
Homer  the  palm  of  "loftiness  of  thought." 
One  of  the  old  poets  thus  alludes  to  his  verse  : — 

"  Read  Homer  once,  and  you  can  read  no  more, 
For  all  books  else  appear  so  mean  and  poor; 
Verse  will  seem  prose;  but  still  persist  to  read, 
And  Homer  will  be  all  the  books  you  need." 

Hono'rius.  An  emperor  of  the  Western  Empire 
of  Rome,  who  succeeded  his  father,  Theodo- 
sius  the  Great.  He  conquered  his  enemies 
by  the  ability  of  his  generals,  and  suffered 
his  people  to  be  governed  by  ministers  who 
took  advantage  of  his  indolence  and  indiffer- 
ence.    He  died  a.d.  423. 


Hora  tii.  Three  brave  Romans,  born  at  the  same 
time,  who  fought  against  the  three  Curiatii 
about  667  years  before  Christ.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  the  fight  two  of  the  Koratii  were 
killed,  and  the  surviving  one  pretended  to  fly, 
thus  separating  his  antagonists  as  they  pur- 
sued him,  and  then,  attacking  them  singly, 
he  slew  them  all. 

Hora'tius,  Q.  Flac'cus.  A  celebrated  poet  born 
at  Venusia.  His  rising  talents  obtained  the 
attention  of  Virgil  and  Varius,  who  recom- 
mended him  to  the  care  of  Maecenas  and  Au- 
gustus, the  celebrated  patrons  of  literature. 
Under  this  fostering  patronage  Horace  gave 
himself  up  to  indolence  and  pleasure.  He 
was  warm  in  his  friendships,  and  if  he  at  any 
time  gave  offense,  he  was  ready  to  make  any 
concession  to  effect  a  reconciliation.  In  his 
satires  and  epistle  he  displays  much  wit  and 
satirical  humor.  He  died  in  his  fifty-seventh 
^-ear,  b.c.  8. 

Horatius.     See  Cocles. 

Horten'sius,  Q.  A  celebrated  orator  who  began 
to  distinguish  himself  in  the  Roman  Forum 
when  he  was  nineteen  years  old.  Cicero 
speaks  eulogistically  of  his  oratorical  powers, 
and  of  his  retentive  memory.  Quintilian 
alludes  to  his  orations  in  terms  of  high  com- 

Hyacin'thus.  A  son  of  Amyclas  and  Diomede, 
greatly  beloved  by  Apollo  and  Zephyrus.  He 
was    accidentally    killed     by    Apollo,     who 


changed  his  blood  into  a  flower  which  bore  his 

Hy'bla.  A  mountain  in  Sicily,  famous  for  the 
odoriferous  herbs  which  grew  on  it.  It  was 
noted  for  its  honey. 

Hydra.  A  celebrated  monster  which  infested  the 
neighborhood  of  Lake  Lernain  Peloponnesus. 
It  was  one  of  the  labors  of  Hercules  to  destroy 
the  monster,  which  he  effected  with  the  aid 
of  lolas. 

Hyge'ia.  The  goddess  of  health,  daughter  of 
^sculapius.  She  was  held  in  great  venera- 
tion among  the  ancients. 

Hymenae  us  or  Hy  men,  the  god  of  m.arriage  among 
the  Greeks,  was  the  son  of  Bacchus  and  Venus, 
or,  according  to  some,  of  Apollo  and  one  of 
the  Muses. 

Hymet'tus.  A  mountain  of  Attica,  about  two 
miles  from  Athens,  famous  for  its  bees  and 

Hyperi  on.  A  son  of  Coelus  and  Terra,  wdio  mar- 
ried Thea.  Aurora  was  their  daughter.  Hy- 
perion is  often  used  by  the  poets  to  signify 
the  sun ;  as,  for  instance,  by  Shakspeare  in 
"Titus  Andronicus"    (act  v.  sc.  2)  — 

"Even  from  Hyperion's  rising  in  the  east. 
Until  his  very  downfall  in  the  sea." 

Also  in  "Troilus  and  Cressida"  and  other  of 
Shakspeare's  plays,  the  same  license  is  used. 
Hypermnes'tra.     Une  of  the  Danaides,  who  were 
the    fifty    daughters    of    Danaus.      She    was 


ordered  by  her  father  to  murder  her  husband 
Lynceus  on  the  night  of  their  marriage,  which 
she  refused  to  do.  Danaus  wished  to  punish 
her  for  her  disobedience,  but  afterward  for- 
gave her,  and  left  his  kingdom  at  his  death 
to  Lynceus. 
Hypsipyle.  A  queen  of  Lemnos,  daughter  of 
Thoas.  During  her  reign,  Venus,  whose 
altars  had  been  slighted,  punished  the  Lem- 
nian  women  by  causing  their  husbands'  af- 
fections to  be  estranged  from  them.  This 
enraged  the  women,  and  they  put  to  death 
their  male  relations,  except  in  the  case  of 
Hypsipyle,  who  spared  her  father  Thoas, 

Ic'arus.  A  son  of  Daedalus,  who,  with  his  father, 
took  a  winged  flight  from  Crete  to  escape  the 
anger  of  Minos.  His  flight  was  too  high,  and 
thus  the  sun  melted  the  wax  which  cemented 
his  wings,  and  he  fell  into  the  sea  and  was 

Idom  eneus  succeeded  his  father  Deucalion  on 
the  throne  of  Crete,  and  accompanied  the 
Greeks  to  the  Trojan  war,  during  which  he 
rendered  himself  famous  for  his  valor.  On 
his  voyage  home,  being  caught  in  a  great 
tempest,  he  vowed  to  Neptune  that  if  he  es- 
caped he  would  make  an  offering  to  the  god 
of  the  first  living  creature  he  saw  on  his  ar- 
rival at  the  Cretan  shore.  He  escaped  the 
storm,  and  the  first  to  meet  him  on  his  land- 
ing was  his  son.     He  performed  his  vow,  and 


became  so  odious  to  his  subjects  that  he  had 
to  leave  his  dominions. 

Igna  tius.  A  bishop  of  Antioch  torn  to  pieces  by- 
lions  in  the  amphitheater  at  Rome  a.d,  107. 
His  works  consisted  of  letters  to  the  Ephe- 
sians,  Romans,  etc.  He  zealously  supported 
the  doctrine  of  the  divinity  of  Christ. 

rius,  fourth  king  of  Troy,  was  son  of  Tros  by 
Callirrhoe.  He  married  Eurydice,  the  daugh- 
ter of  Adrastus.  He  embellished  the  city  of 
Ilium,  called  also  Troy  from  his  father  Tros. 

I'no.  A  daughter  of  Cadmus  and  Harmonia,  who 
nursed  Bacchus."  She  married  Athamas,  king 
of  Thebes,  after  he  had  divorced  Nephele. 

I'o,  a  daughter  of  Inachus,  was  a  priestess  of 
Juno  at  Argos.  Jupiter  changed  her  into  a 
beautiful  heifer,  and  eventually  restored  her 
to  her  own  form.  She  was  greatly  persecuted 
by  Juno.  She  married  Telegonus,  king  of 
Egypt,  or  Osiris  according  to  others,  and 
treated  her  subjects  with  such  kindness  that 
after  death  she  received  divine  honors,  and 
was  worshiped  under  the  name  of  Isis. 

Tolas  or  lola'us.  A  son  of  Iphiclus,  king  of 
Thessaly,  who  assisted  Hercules  in  conquer- 
ing the  Hydra;  he  burnt  with  a  hot  iron  the 
place  where  the  monster's  heads  had  been  cut 
off  to  prevent  their  re-growth. 

Iph  iclus.  A  son  of  Amphitryon  and  Alcmena. 
twin  brother  of  Hercules.  As  the  children 
were  cradled  together,  Juno,  jealous  of  Her- 
cules, sent  two  large  serpents  to  destroy  him. 


At  the  sight  of  the  snakes  Iphiclus  showed 
great  alarm,  but  Hercules  seized  them,  one  in 
each  hand,  and  squeezed  them  to  death. 

Iphicrates.  A  celebrated  general  of  Athens,  who, 
though  son  of  a  shoemaker,  rose  to  the  high- 
est offices  in  the  state.  He  made  war  against 
the  Thracians,  and  assisted  the  Persian  king 
against  Egypt. 

Iphigeni'a.  A  daughter  of  Agamemnon  and  Cly- 
temnestra.  When  the  Greeks,  going  to  the 
Trojan  war,  were  detained  at  Aulis  by  con- 
trary winds,  they  were  informed  by  a  sooth- 
sayer that  to  appease  the  gods  they  must  sac- 
rifice Iphigenia  to  Diana.  As  the  fatal  knife 
was  about  to  be  plunged  into  her,  Iphigenia 
suddenly  disappeared,  and  a  goat  of  great 
beauty  was  found  in  the  place  where  she  had 
stood  ready  for  the  sacrifice. 

Iph'itus.  A  son  of  Eurytus,  king  of  CEchalia. 
When  his  father  had  promised  his  daughter 
lole  to  any  one  who  could  excel  him  or  his 
sons  in  drawing  the  bow,  Hercules  accepted 
the  challenge  and  was  victorious.  Eurytus, 
however,  refused  to  fulfil  the  compact  by  giv- 
ing his  daughter  to  the  conqueror.  After- 
ward some  oxen  were  stolen  from  Eurytus, 
and  Iphitus  was  sent  in  quest  of  them.  In 
his  search  he  met  Hercules,  who  aided  him  in 
seeking  the  lost  animals,  but  on  recollecting 
the  faithlessness  of  Eurytus  he  killed  Iphitus. 

Irens'us.  A  native  of  Greece,  disciple  of  Poly- 
carp,  and  bishop  of  Lyons.     He  wrote  on  dif= 


fe rent  subjects,  and  suffered  martyrdom  a.d. 


Iris.  One  of  the  Oceanides,  messenger  of  the 
gods,  and  more  particularly  of  Juno.  Her 
office  was  to  cut  the  thread  which  seemed  to 
detain  the  soul  of  those  who  were  expiring. 
She  is  the  same  as  the  rainbow. 

I'sis.  A  celebrated  deity  of  the  Egyptians, 
daughter  of  Saturn  and  Rhea,  according  to 
Diodorus  of  Sicily.  Some  suppose  her  to  be 
the  same  as  lo,  who  was  changed  into  a  cow, 
and  restored  to  her  human  form  in  Egypt, 
where  she  taught  agriculture,  and  governed 
the  people  with  mildness  and  equity,  for 
which  she  received  divine  honors  after  her 

Isoc'rates.  A  celebrated  orator,  son  of  a  musical 
instrument  maker  at  Athens.  He  opened  a 
school  of  eloquence  at  Athens,  where  he  was 
distinguished  for  the  number,  character,  and 
fame  of  his  pupils.  He  was  intimate  with 
Philip  of  Macedon,  but  the  aspiring  ambition 
of  Philip  displeased  Isocrates,  and  the  defeat 
of  the  Athenians  at  Chseronea  had  such  an 
effect  on  him  that  he  did  not  long  survive  it. 
He  died,  after  being  four  days  without  taking 
any  aliment,  in  his  ninety-ninth  year,  about 
338  years  before  Christ.  He  was  honored 
after  death  by  the  erection  of  a  brazen  statue 
to  his  memory  by  Timotheus,  one  of  his 
pupils,  and  Aphareus,  his  adopted  son.  Mil- 
ton, in  one  of  his  sonnets,  speaks  of  him  as 


"that  old  man  eloquent"  when  alluding  to  his 
death  as  being  caused  by  the  news  of  the  bat- 
tle of  Chaeronea. 

rtys.  A  son  of  Tereus,  king  of  Thrace,  and 
Procne,  daughter  of  Pandion,  king  of  Athens. 
He  was  killea  oy  nis  mother  when  he  was  six 
years  old,  and  served  up  to  his  father  to  be 
eaten  by  him.  He  was  changed  into  a  pheas- 
ant, his  mother  into  a  swallow,  and  his  father 
into  an  owl. 

Ixion.  A  king  of  Thessaly,  son  of  Phlegias,  or, 
according  to  Hyginus,  of  Leontes,  or,  accord- 
ing to  Diodorus,  of  Antion  and  Perimela. 
Jupiter  carried  him  to  heaven  and  placed  him 
at  the  table  of  the  gods,  where  he  became 
enamored  wnth  Juno,  which  so  incensed  Jupiter 
that  he  banished  him  from  heaven,  and  ordered 
Mercury  to  tie  him  to  a  wheel  in  hell  which 
continually  whirled  round,  keeping  Ixion  in 
perpetual  torture. 

Janus.  An  ancient  king  who  reigned  in  Italy. 
He  was  a  native  of  Thessaly,  and,  according 
to  some  writers,  a  son  of  Apollo.  He  built  a 
town  which  he  called  Janiculum.  Some  au- 
thors make  him  to  have  been  son  of  Coelus  and 
Hecate.  He  is  represented  with  two  faces, 
because  he  was  acquainted  with  the  past  and 
future.  His  temple  was  always  open  in  time 
of  war,  and  was  shut  when  peace  existed. 

Jap'etus.     A  son  of  Coelus  or  Titan  and  Terra. 
who   married    Asia,    or,    according  to    some 


writers,  Clymene.  The  Greeks  looked  on 
him  as  the  father  of  all  mankind. 

Jason.  A  celebrated  hero,  son  of  .^son  and 
Alcimedes.  His  education  was  entrusted  to 
the  Centaur  Chiron.  The  greatest  feat  re- 
corded of  him  is  his  voyage  in  the  Argo  to 
Colchis  to  obtain  the  Golden  Fleece,  which, 
aided  by  Juno,  he  succeeded  in  doing.  Medea, 
daughter  of  ^etes,  king  of  Colchis,  fell  in  love 
with  Jason.  She  was  a  powerful  magician, 
and  on  Jason  having  vowed  eternal  fidelity  to 
her,  she  gave  him  charms  to  protect  him  from 
danger.  After  securing  the  Fleece,  Jason  set 
sail  from  the  country  with  his  wife  Medea. 
After  some  years  he  became  enamored  with 
Glauce,  daughter  of  Creon,  king  of  Corinth, 
whom  he  married,  having  divorced  Medea. 
This  cruel  act  was  revenged  by  Medea,  who 
destroyed  her  children  in  the  presence  of  their 
father.  Jason  is  said  to  have  been  killed  by 
a  beam  which  fell  on  his  head  as  he  was  re- 
posing by  the  side  of  the  ship  which  had  borne 
him  to  Colchis. 

Jocas'ta.  A  daughter  of  Menoeceus,  who  married 
Laius,  king  of  Thebes,  CEdipus  being  their 
son.  She  afterward  married  CEdipus  with- 
out knowing  who  he  was,  and  on  the  discov- 
ery she  hanged  herself.  By  some  mytholo- 
gists  she  is  called  Epicasta. 

Jose'phus,  Fla'vius.  A  celebrated  Jew,  born  in 
Jerusalem,  who  signalized  himself  in  a  siege 
conducted  by  Vespasian  and  Titus  in  a  small 


town  in  Judaea.     He  was  present  at  the  siege 
of  Jerusalem  by    Titus,  and  received  all  the 
sacred  books  which  it  contained  from  the  con- 
queror's hands.     He  wrote  a  history  of  the 
wars  of  the  Jews  in   Syriac,  and  afterwards 
translated  it  into   Greek.     He   also  wrote  a 
work,  which  he  divided  into  twenty  books,  on 
Jewish  antiquities.     He  died  a.d.  93,   in  his 
fifty -sixth  year. 
Jovia  nus,  Fla  vius  Clau  dius.     A  native  of  Pan- 
nonia  elected  emperor  of  Rome  by  the  soldiers 
after  the  death  of  Julian.      He  refused   the 
purple  at  first,  but  on  being  assured  that  his 
subjects    were     favorably    disposed     toward 
Christianity  he  accepted  the  crown.     He  died 
about  seven   months  after  assuming  the  su- 
preme power,  being  found  in  bed  suffocated 
by   the  vapors  of  charcoal   which   had   been 
lighted  in  his  room,  a.d.  364. 
Ju'ba.     A  king  of  Numidia  and  Mauritania  who 
favored  the  cause  of  Pompey  against  Julius 
Ciesar.     He  defeated  Curio,  whom  Csesar  had 
sent  to  Africa,  and  after  the  battle  of  Phar- 
salia  he  joined  his  forces  to  those  of  Scipio. 
He  was  conquered  in  a  battle  at  Thapsus,  and 
killed    himself.       His     kingdom     became    a 
Roman   province,  of  which   Sallust  was   the 
first  governor. 
Ju'ba,  the  second  of  that  name,  was  led  captive  to 
Rome  to  give  lustre  to  the  triumph  of  Caesar. 
He  wrote  a  history  of  Rome  which  was  often 
commended  and  quoted  by  the  ancients. 


Jugur  tha.  A  distinguished  Numldian  who  went 
with  a  body  of  troops  to  the  assistance  of 
Scipio  who  was  besieging  Numantia.  Jugur- 
tha  endeared  himself  to  the  Roman  general 
by  his  bravery  and  activity.  His  uncle  Mi- 
cipsa  appointed  him  successor  to  the  throne, 
with  his  two  sons  Adherbal  and  Hiempsal,  the 
latter  of  whom  was  slain  by  Jugurtha,  and 
the  former  had  to  fly  to  Rome  for  safety. 
Csecilius  Metellus  was  sent  against  Jugurtha, 
who  was  betrayed,  and  delivered  into  the 
hands  of  the  Romans.  He  died  in  prison, 
B.C.  io6. 

Ju'lia.  A  daughter  of  Julius  Caesar  and  Cornelia, 
famous  for  her  virtues  and  personal  charms. 
She  was  obliged  by  her  father  to  divorce  her- 
self from  her  first  husband  to  marry  Pompey 
the  Great,  with  the  object  of  cementing  the 
friendship  between  him  and  her  father. 

Ju'lia.  Daughter  of  Augustus,  remarkable  for 
her  beauty,  genius,  and  vices.  Her  father 
gave  her  in  marriage  to  Marcellus,  after 
whose  death  she  united  herself  to  Agrippa, 
and  again  becoming  a  widow  she  married 
Tiberius.  Her  conduct  now  became  so  un- 
seemly that  she  was  banished  to  a  small  island 
on  the  coast  of  Campania,  where  she  was 
starved  to  death. 

Ju'lia.  A  daughter  of  Germanicus  and  Agrippina, 
born  at  Lesbos,  a.d.  17.  She  married  M. 
Vinucius,  a  senator,  when  she  was  sixteen 
years  old.     She  was  banished  on  suspicion  of 


conspiracy  by  her  brother  Caligula.  She  was 
notorious  for  her  licentious  conduct,  and  was 
put  to  death  when  she  was  about  twenty-four 
years  of  age. 

Ju'lia.  A  celebrated  woman  born  in  Phoenicia. 
She  applied  herself  to  the  study  of  philosophy, 
and  was  conspicuous  for  her  mental  as  well 
as  her  personal  charms.  She  came  to  Rome, 
where  she  married  Septimius  Severus,  who 
was  afterward  invested  with  the  purple.  She 
was  also  called  Domna. 

Julia'nus.  A  son  of  Julius  Constantius,  the 
brother  of  Constantine  the  Great,  born  in 
Constantinople.  The  massacre  which  at- 
tended the  elevation  of  the  sons  of  Constan- 
tine to  the  throne  nearly  proved  fatal  to  Julian 
and  his  brother  Gallus.  The  two  brothers 
were  privately  educated  and  taught  the  doc- 
trine of  the  Christian  religion — which  after- 
ward Julian  disavowed,  and  in  consequence 
of  this  the  term  "Apostate"  is  generally  af- 
fixed to  his  name.  He  died,  a.d.  363,  in  his 
thirty-second  year.  His  last  moments  were 
spent  in  a  conversation  with  a  philosopher 
about  the  immortality  of  the  soul.  Julian's 
character  has  been  admired  by  some  writers, 
but  generally  he  is  censured  for  his  apostasy. 

Ju'no.  A  celebrated  deity  among  the  ancients, 
daughter  of  Saturn  and  Ops.  Jupiter  married 
her.  and  the  nuptials  were  celebrated  with  the 
greatest  solemnity  in  the  presence  of  all  the 
gods.     By  her  marriage  with  Jupiter,   Juno 


became  the  queen  of  all  the  gods,  and  mis- 
tress of  heaven  and  earth.  She  presided  over 
marriage,  and  patronized  those  of  her  sex  who 
were  distinguished  for  virtuous  conduct. 
Paris  gave  her  great  offense  by  giving  the 
golden  apple,  as  an  award  to  beaut}',  to  Venus 
instead  of  herself. 

Ju'piter.  The  chief  of  all  the  gods  of  the  an- 
cients. According  to  Varro  there  were  three 
hundred  persons  of  that  name.  To  him  of 
Crete,  who  passed  for  the  son  of  Saturn  and 
Ops,  the  actions  of  the  rest  have  been  attrib- 
uted. Jupiter  was  educated  in  a  cave  on 
Mount  Ida,  in  Crete,  and  fed  with  the  milk  of 
the  goat  Amaltha^a.  While  he  was  very 
young  he  made  war  on  the  Titans,  whom  he 
conquered.  The  beginning  of  his  reign  in  the 
supernal  regions  was  interrupted  by  the  re- 
bellion of  the  giants  who  were  sons  of  the 
Earth,  and  who  were  desirous  of  revenging 
the  death  of  the  Titans,  but  by  the  aid  of 
Hercules  Jupiter  overpowered  them.  Jupiter 
married  Metis,  Themis,  Ceres,  Euronyme, 
Mnemosyne,  Latona,  and  Juno.  His  worship 
was  universal  :  he  was  the  Amnion  of  the 
Africans,  the  Belus  of  Babylon,  and  the  Osiris 
of  Egypt. 

Juvena'lis,  D.  Junius.  A  poet  born  at  Aquinum 
in  Italy.  lie  came  to  Rome  at  an  early  age. 
where  he  applied  himself  to  the  writing  of 
satires,  some  of  which  are  extant.  He  died 
in  the  reign  of  Trajan  a.d.  128.     His  writings 


.  .  are  distinguished  by  a  lively  style,  but  abound 
with  ill  humor. 

Labe'rius,  J.  Dec'imus.  A  Roman  knight  famous 
for  his  skill  in  writing  pantomimes.  Csesar 
made  him  appear  on  the  stage  in  one  of  his 
plays,  which  he  resented  by  throwing  out 
aspersions  on  Csesar  during  the  performance, 
and  b)  warning  the  audience  against  tyranny. 

Lach  esis.  One  of  the  Parcae,  or  Fates.  She 
presided  over  futurity,  and  was  represented 
as  spinning  the  thread  of  life,  or  according  to 
some  as  holding  the  spindle. 

Laertes.  A  king  of  Ithaca  who  married  Anticlea, 
daughter  of  Autolycus.  Ulysses  was  their 
son,  and  succeeded  him  on  the  throne,  Laertes 
retiring  to  the  country,  and  devoting  his  time 
to  gardening,  in  which  employment  he  was 
found  by  Ulysses  on  his  return  from  the  Tro- 
jan war,  after  twenty  years'  absence. 

La'gus.  A  Macedonian  of  mean  extraction,  who 
married  Arsinoe,  daughter  of  Meleager. 
On  the  birth  of  a  child  it  was  exposed  in  the 
woods  by  Lagus,  but  an  eagle  preserved  its 
life  by  feeding  and  sheltering  it  with  her 
wings.  The  infant  was  afterward  known  as 
King  Ptolemy  the  First  of  Egypt. 

Lais.  A  woman  of  immoral  character,  daughter 
of  Timandra  and  Alcibiades.  Diogenes,  the 
Cynic,  was  one  of  her  admirers,  and  gained  her 
heart.  She  went  to  Thessaly,  where  the  wo- 
men, jealous  of  her  charms,  assassinated  her, 


Laoc  oon.  A  priest  of  Apollo  who  in  the  Trojan 
war  was  opposed  to  the  admission  of  the 
wooden  horse  to  the  city.  For  this,  as  a 
punishment,  two  enormous  serpents  were  sent 
to  attack  him,  which  they  did  while,  accom- 
panied by  his  two  sons,  he  was  offering  a  sac- 
rifice to  Neptune.  The  serpents  coiled  round 
him  and  his  sons,  and  crushed  them  to  death. 
Lord  Byron  ("Childe  Harold,"  canto  iv.)  thus 
alludes  to  the  Laocoon  group  in  marble  in  the 
Vatican  : 

"  Or,  turning  to  the  Vatican,  go  see 

Laocoon's  torture,  dignifying  pain — 
A  father's  love  and  mortal's  agony 

With  an  immortal's  patience  blending.    Vain 

The  struggle;  vain,  against  the  coiling  strain 
And  gripe,  and  deepening  of  the  dragon's  grasp, 

The  old  man's  clench;  the  long,  envenom'd  chain 
Rivets  the  living  links— the  enormous  asp 
Enforces  pang  on  pang,  and  stifles  gasp  on  gasp." 

Laom'edon.  Son  of  Ilus,  and  king  of  Troy.  He 
married  Strynio,  called  by  some  Placia  or 
Leucippe.  Podarces,  afterward  known  as 
Priam,  was  their  son.  Laomedon  built  the 
walls  of  Troy,  in  which  he  was  assisted  by 
Apollo  and  Neptune. 

Lap  ithus.  A  son  of  Apollo  and  Stilbe.  He 
married  Orsinome,  Phorbas  and  Periphas 
being  their  children,  to  whose  numerous  de- 
scendants was  given  the  name  Lapithae,  a 
number  of  whom  attended  the  nuptials  of 
Pirithous  with  Hippodamia,  the  daughter  of 
Adrastus,  king  of  Argos.     The  Centaurs  also 


attended  the  festivity,  and  quarreled  with  the 
Lapithse,  which  resulted  in  blows  and  slaugh- 
ter. Many  of  the  Centaurs  were  slain,  and 
they  were  at  last  obliged  to  retire. 

Lares.  Gods  of  inferior  power  at  Rome,  who 
presided  over  houses  and  families.  They 
were  two  in  number,  sons  of  Mercury  and 

Lati'nus.  A  son  of  Faunus  and  Marica.  king  of 
the  Aborigines  in  Italy,  who  from  him  were 
called  Latini. 

Lato'na.  A  daughter  of  Coeus,  the  Titan,  and 
Phoebe.  She  was  admired  for  her  beauty 
by  Jupiter.  Juno  made  Latona  the  object  of 
her  vengeance,  and  sent  the  serpent  Python 
to  persecute  her. 

Lean'der.  A  youth  of  Abydos.  He  was  passion- 
ately in  love  with  Hero,  a  young  girl  of 
Sestos.  He  was  in  the  habit  of  swimming 
across  the  Hellespont  to  visit  her,  in  doing 
which,  on  a  tempestuous  night,  he  was 
drowned.  Lord  Byron  performed  the  same 
feat  in  1810,  an  exploit  which  he  has  cele- 
brated in  verse  in  his  occasional  pieces.  He 
expresses  surprise  that,  as  the  truth  of  Lean- 
der's  story  had  been  questioned,  no  one  had 
hitherto  tested  its  practicability. 

Le'da.  A  daughter  of  king  Thespius  and  Eury- 
themis,  who  married  Tyndarus.  king  of 
Sparta.  She  is  famous  for  her  intrigue  with 
Jupiter.  She  was  the  mother  of  Pollux, 
Helena,    Castor,   and  Clytemnestra.     She   is 


said  to  have  received  the  name- of  Nemesis 
after  death. 

Lem'ures.  The  manes  of  the  dead.  The  an- 
cients supposed  that  after  death  the  departed 
souls  wandered  over  the  world  and  disturbed 
the  peace  of  its  inhabitants. 

Leon'idas.  A  celebrated  king  of  Lacedsemon 
who  went  to  oppose  Xerxes,  king  of  Persia, 
who  had  invaded  Greece  with  a  vast  army. 
A  great  battle  was  fought  at  Thermopylae,  the 
entire  army  of  Leonidas  consisting  of  300  men 
who  refused  to  abandon  him.  For  a  time  this 
small  army  resisted  the  vast  legions  of  Xerxes, 
till  at  length  a  traitor  conducted  a  detachment 
of  Persians  by  a  secret  path  to  the  rear  of 
Leonidas,  when  his  soldiers  were  cut  to  pieces, 
one  only  of  the  300  escaping.  The  late  Rev. 
George  Croly,  author  of  "Salathiel,"  wrote  a 
poem,  called  "The  Death  of  Leonidas," 
which,  after  describing  in  vivid  language  the 
determined  valor  of  the  Greeks,  thus  con- 
cludes : 

"  Thus  fought  the  Greek  of  old; 
Thus  will  he  fight  again: 
Shall  not  the  self-same  mould 
Bring  forth  the  self-same  men?" 

Lepi'dus,  M.  ^Emilius.  A  celebrated  Roman, 
one  of  the  triumvirs  with  Augustus  and  An- 
tony. He  was  of  an  illustrious  family,  and, 
like  many  of  his  contemporaries,  remarkable 
for  ambition.  He  was  unable  to  maintain  his 
position  as  triumvir;  and,  resigning  power, 
he  sank  into  obscurity. 


Le'the.  One  of  the  rivers  of  hell,  whose  waters 
were  imbibed  by  the  souls  of  the  dead  which 
had  been  for  a  certain  period  confined  in  Tar- 
tarus. Those  who  drank  of  this  river  forgot 
whatever  they  had  previously  known.  In 
this  sense  the  word  is  constantly  used  by  the 
poets.  Thus  Shakspeare  (Henry  IV.  part  ii. 
act  V.  scene  2)  says  : 

"  May  this  be  washed  in  Lethe  and  for.e:otten." 
Leucip'pus.     A  celebrated  philosopher  of  Abdera, 
about  428  years  before  Christ.     He  was  a  dis- 
ciple of  Zeno.     His  life  was  written  by  Diog- 
enes.    There  were  several  others  of  the  same 
Leuc  tra.     A  village   in   Boeotia,  famous  for  the 
victory  which  Epaminondas,  the  Theban  gen- 
eral, obtained  over  the  superior  force  of  Cle- 
ombrotus,  king  of  Sparta,  b.c.  371. 
Licinius,  C.     A  tribune  of  the  people  celebrated 
for  his  intrigues  and  ability.     He  was  a  ple- 
beian, and  was  the  first  of  that  class  that  was 
raised  to  the  office  of  master  of  the  horse  to 
the  dictator.     There  were  a  number  of  other 
Romans  of  the  same  name. 
Liv'ius,  Ti'tus.     A  native  of  Padua,  a  celebrated 
historian.     He   passed   the  chief  part  of  his 
time  at  Naples  and  Rome,  but  more  particu- 
larly at  the  court  of  Augustus,  who  liberally 
patronized  him.     The  name  of  Livy  is  ren- 
dered immortal  by  his  history  of  the  Roman 
empire.     The  merit  of  this  history  is  admitted 
by  all,  and  the  high  rank  which  Livy  holds 


among  historians  is  undisputed.  Lord  Byron 
speaks  of  it  in  his  "Childe  Harold"  as  "Livy  s 
picture  page. " 

Liv  ius,  Androni  cus.  A  dramatic  poet  Avho  flour- 
ished at  Rome  about  240  years  before  the 
Christian  era. 

Longi  nus,  Dionys  ius  Cas  sius.  A  celebrated 
Greek  philosopher  of  Athens.  He  was  pre- 
ceptor of  the  Greek  language,  and  afterward 
minister,  to  Zenobia,  the  famous  queen  of 

Luca  nus,  M.  Annae  us.  A  native  of  Corduba  in 
Spain.  At  an  early  age  he  went  to  Rome, 
where  his  rising  talents  recommended  him  to 
the  emperor  Nero.  He  unwisely  entered  into 
a  poetical  contest  with  Nero,  in  which  he  ob- 
tained an  easy  victory,  which  greatly  offended 
the  emperor.  After  this  Lucan  was  exposed 
to  much  annoyance  from  Nero,  and  was  in- 
duced to  join  in  a  conspiracy  against  him,  on 
which  he  was  condemned  to  death,  the  mode 
of  which  he  had  the  liberty  of  choosing.  He 
decided  to  have  his  veins  opened  in  a  warm 
bath,  and  died  quoting  some  lines  from  his 
"Pharsalia. "  Of  all  his  works  none  but  the 
"  Pharsalia"  remains. 

Lucia  nus.  A  celebrated  writer  of  Samosata. 
His  works  are  numerous,  consisting  chiefly  of 
dialogues  written  with  much  force.  He  died 
A.i).  180,  being,  as  some  say,  torn  in  pieces  by 
dogs  for  his  impiety. 

Lu  cifer.     The    name    of    the    planet  Venus,  or 


morning  star.  It  is  called  Lucifer  when  ap- 
pearing in  the  morning  before  the  sun,  but 
when  it  appears  after  its  setting  it  is  called 

Lucil  ius,  C.  A  Roman  knight,  who  is  regarded 
as  the  first  satirical  writer  among  the  Romans. 
Of  thirty  satires  which  he  wrote  only  a  few 
verses  remain.     He  died  at  Naples  B.C.  103. 

Lucilius  Luci'nus.  A  famous  Roman  who  fled 
with  Brutus  from  the  battle  of  Philippi.  He 
was  taken  prisoner,  but  the  conquerors  spared 
his  life. 

Luci  na.  A  daughter  of  Jupiter  and  Juno.  She 
was  the  goddess  who  presided  over  the  birth 
of  children. 

Lucre  tia.  A  celebrated  Roman  lady,  daughter 
of  Lucretius  and  wife  of  Tarquinius  Colla- 
tinus.  A  number  of  young  noble  Romans  at 
Ardea,  among  whom  were  Collatinus  and  the 
sons  of  Tarquin  the  Proud,  were  discussing 
the  virtues  of  their  wives  at  home,  and  it  was 
agreed  to  go  to  Rome  to  ascertain  how  their 
wives  employed  themselves  in  their  husbands' 
absence  in  the  camp.  While  the  wives  of  the 
others  were  indulging  in  feasting  and  dissipa- 
tion, Lucretia  was  found  in  her  house  em- 
ploying herself  with  her  servants  in  domestic 
duties.  She  was  brutally  treated  by  Sextus 
Tarquin,  a  relative  of  Collatinus,  and  stabbed 
herself.  This  was  the  signal  for  a  rebellion, 
the  result  being  the  expulsion  of  the  Tarquins 
from  Rome 


Lucretius,  Ca'rus  T.  A  celebrated  Roman  poet 
and  philosopher.  The  tenets  of  Epicurus 
were  embraced  by  him,  and  were  explained 
and  elucidated  in  a  poem  which  he  wrote, 
De  rerum  fiaturd.  This  poem  is  distin- 
guished by  genius  and  elegance,  but  the  doc- 
trines it  inculcates  have  an  atheistical  tend- 
ency. Lucretius  is  said  to  have  destroyed 
himself  b.c.  54. 

Lucul'lus,  Lucius  Licin  ius.  A  Roman  noted 
for  his  fondness  of  luxury  and  for  his  military 
abilities.  He  was  born  about  115  years  be 
fore  the  Christian  era,  and  distinguished  him 
self  by  his  proficiency  in  eloquence  and  phil 
osophy.  He  was  soon  advanced  to  the  con 
sulship,  and  entrusted  with  the  managemen 
of  the  Mithridatic  war,  in  which  he  displayec 
his  military  talents. 

Lycur'gus.  A  celebrated  lawgiver  of  Sparta,  son 
of  King  Eunomus  and  brother  to  Polydectes. 
He  succeeded  his  brother  on  the  Spartan 
throne.  In  the  laws  which  he  enacted  he 
maintained  a  just  equilibrium  between  the 
throne  and  the  people ;  he  banished  luxury 
and  encouraged  the  useful  arts,  and  adopted 
a  number  of  measures  having  for  their  object 
the  well-being  of  the  people.  Lycurgus  has 
been  compared  with  Solon,  the  celebrated 
legislator  of  Athens. 

Lyn'ceus,  son  of  Aphareus,  was  one  of  the  hunt- 
ers of  the  Calydonian  boar,  and  one  of  the 
Argonauts.     He  was  so  sharp-sighted  that  he 


could  see  through  the  earth  and  distinguish 
objects  at  a  great  distance  from  him.  There 
was  another  person  of  the  same  name  who 
married  Hypermnestra,  daughter  of  Danaus. 

Lysan'der.  A  celebrated  general  of  Sparta  in  the 
last  years  of  the  Peloponnesian  war.  He 
drew  Ephesus  from  the  interest  of  Athens, 
and  gained  the  friendship  of  Cyrus  the 
younger.  He  gave  battle  to  the  Athenian 
fleet,  and  destroyed  it  all  except  three  ships. 
In  this  battle,  which  was  fought  405  years  be- 
fore the  Christian  era,  the  Athenians  lost  a 
great  number  of  men,  and  in  consequence  of 
it  forfeited  their  influence  over  neighboring 
states.  Lysander  was  killed  in  battle  394 
years  k.c. 

Lysim  achus.  A  son  of  Agathocles,  who  was 
one  of  the  generals  of  Alexander.  After  the 
death  of  that  monarch  Lysimachus  made  him- 
self master  of  Thrace,  where  he  built  a  town 
which  he  called  Lysimachia. 

Lysip'pus.  A  famous  statuary  of  vSicyon.  He 
applied  himself  to  painting,  but  he  was  born 
to  excel  in  sculpture.  He  lived  about  325 
years  before  the  Christian  era,  in  the  age  of 
Alexander  the  Great. 

Macro'bius.  A  Latin  writer  who  died  a.d.  415. 
He  has  rendered  himself  famous  for  a  com- 
position called  Saturmilia,  a  miscellaneous 
collection  of  antiquarian  and  critical  literature. 

Msander.    A    celebrated  river    of    Asia  Minor 


flowing  into  the  ..^gean  Sea.  It  is  famous 
among  the  poets  for  its  windings,  and  from 
it  the  application  of  the  word  "meandering" 
to  a  winding  stream  has  become  proverbial. 

Maece  nas,  or  Mecae  nas,  C.  Clinius,  a  celebrated 
Roman  knight,  has  rendered  himself  im- 
mortal by  his  liberal  patronage  of  learned 
men.  To  the  interference  of  Maecenas,  Virgil 
was  indebted  for  the  restitution  of  his  lands. 
Maecenas,  according  to  the  received  opinion, 
wrote  a  history  of  animals  and  a  journal  of 
the  life  of  Augustus.  Virgil  dedicated  his 
Georgics  to  him,  as  did  Horace  his  Odes. 

Ma  nes.  A  name  applied  by  the  ancients  to  the 
soul  when  departed  from  the  body. 

Man  lius,  Marcus.  A  celebrated  Iloman  who,  at 
an  early  age,  distinguished  himself  for  valor. 
When  Rome  was  taken  by  the  Gauls,  he,  with 
a  body  of  his  countrymen,  fled  to  the  Capitol, 
which  he  defended  when  it  was  surprised  in 
the  night  by  the  enemy.  This  gained  him 
the  surname  of  Capitoliniis,  and  the  geese 
which  had  awakened  him  to  action  by  their 
clamor  were  afterward  held  sacred  among 
the  Romans. 

Mara  thon.  A  village  of  Attica,  celebrated  for 
the  victory  which  the  Athenians  and  Platseans, 
under  the  command  of  Miltiades,  gained  over 
the  Persian  army,  490  h.c.  Lord  Byron 
("Don  Juan,"  canto  ill.  verse  86)  alludes  to 
Marathon,  and  the  famous  battle  fought 
there ;— 


"  The  mountains  look  on  Marathon, 

And  Marathon  looks  on  the  sea; 
And,  musing  there  an  hour  alone, 

I  dream'd  that  Greece  might  still  be  free; 
For,  standing  on  the  Persians'  grave, 
I  could  not  deem  myself  a  slave." 

Marcel  lus,  Mar  cus  Clau  dius.  A  famous  Roman 
general.  He  was  the  first  Roman  who  ob- 
tained some  advantage  over  Hannibal.  He 
conquered  Syracuse,  with  the  spoils  from 
which  he  adorned  Rome.  He  was  killed  in 
battle  in  his  fifth  consulship. 

Marcel'lus.  A  Roman  who  distinguished  himself 
in  the  civil  wars  of  Caesar  and  Pompey  by  his 
firm  attachment  to  the  latter.  He  was  ban- 
ished by  Caesar,  but  was  afterwards  recalled 
at  the  request  of  the  Senate.  Pope  ("Essay 
on  Man,"  epistle  iv.)  has  a  couplet  referring 
to  him  : — 

"  And  more  true  joy  Marcellus  exil'd  feels, 
Than  Caesar  with  a  senate  at  his  heels." 

There  were  some  other  Romans  of  the  same 
name,  of  minor  repute. 

Mardo'nius.  A  general  in  the  army  of  Xerxes 
who  was  defeated  in  the  battle  of  Plataea, 
where  he  was  slain,  B.C.  479. 

Ma  rius,  C.  A  celebrated  Roman  who  signalized 
himself  under  Scipio  at  the  siege  of  Xumantia. 
He  was  appointed  to  finish  the  war  against 
Jugurtha,  who  was  defeated  and  betrayed  into 
the  hands  of  the  Romans.  After  this  new 
honors    awaited    Marius.       He    was    elected 


consul,  and  was  sent  against  the  Teutones. 
The  war  was  prolonged,  and  Marius  was  a 
third  and  fourth  time  invested  with  the  con- 
sulship. At  length  two  engagements  were 
fought,  and  the  Teutones  were  defeated,  a 
vast  number  of  them  being  left  dead  on  the 
battle-fields.  After  many  vicissitudes  Marius 
died,  B.C.  86,  directly  after  he  had  been  hon- 
ored with  the  consulship  for  the  seventh  time. 
There  were  a  number  of  others  of  the  same 
name,  but  of  minor  note. 

Mars,  the  god  of  war,  was  the  son  of  Jupiter  and 
Juno,  or  of  Juno  alone,  according  to  Ovid. 
The  loves  of  Mars  and  Venus  are  greatly  cele- 
brated. On  one  occasion,  while  in  each 
other's  conipany,  Vulcan  spread  a  net  round 
them,  from  which  they  could  not  escape  with- 
out assistance.  They  were  thus  exposed  to 
the  ridicule  of  the  gods  till  Neptune  induced 
Vulcan  to  set  them  at  liberty.  During  the 
Trojan  war  Mars  interested  himself  on  the 
side  of  the  Trojans,  and  'defended  the  favor- 
ites of  Venus  with  great  determination. 

Mar'syas.  A  celebrated  piper  of  Cclajne  in 
Phrygia.  He  challenged  Apollo  to  a  trial  of 
skill  in  music,  which  challenge  was  accepted, 
the  Muses  being  appointed  umpires.  The 
palm  of  victory  was  awarded  to  Apollo,  who 
tied  his  antagonist  to  a  tree  and  flayed  him. 

Martia'lis,  Marcus  Valerius.  A  native  of  Spain 
who  came  to  Rome  when  he  was  about  twenty 
years  old,  where  he  became  n<;ticeable  by  his 


poetical  genius.  Martial  wrote  fourteen  books 
of  epigrams  and  died  in  the  seventy-fifth  year 
of  his  age. 

Masinis'sa.  A  king  of  a  small  part  of  Africa, 
who  at  first  assisted  the  Carthaginians  in  their 
wars  against  Rome,  but  who  subsequently  be- 
came an  ally  of  the  Romans.  After  his  de- 
feat of  Syphax  he  married  Sophonisba,  the 
wife  of  Syphax,  which  gave  offense  to  the 
Roman  general,  Scipio,  on  which  Masinissa 
induced  Sophonisba  to  end  her  life  by  poison. 
In  the  battle  of  Zama,  Masinissa  greatly  con- 
tributed to  the  defeat  of  Hannibal.  He  died 
in  his  ninety-seventh  year,  149  years  before 
the  Christian  era. 

Mauso  lus.  A  kingof  Caria.  His  wife  Artemisia 
was  very  disconsolate  at  his  death,  and  erected 
one  of  the  grandest  monuments  of  antiquity 
to  perpetuate  his  memory.  This  famous 
building,  which  was  deemed  to  be  one  of  the 
seven  wonders  of  the  world,  was  called 
"Mausoleum,"  which  name  has  been  since  ap- 
plied to  other  grand  sepulchral  monuments. 

Maximi'nus,  Ca'ius  Ju'lius  Ve'rus,  was  the  son  of 
a  peasant  of  Thrace.  He  entered  the  Roman 
armies,  where  he  gradually  rose  till  he  was 
proclaimed  emperor  a.d.  235.  He  ruled  with 
great  cruelty,  and  was  eventually  killed  by 
his  own  soldiers.  He  was  of  immense  size 
and  strength,  and  was  able  to  break  the  hard- 
est stones  between  his  fingers. 

Medea.      A  celebrated    magician,    daughter    of 


-(Eetes,  king  of  Colchis,  and  niece  of  Cuxe. 
When  Jason  came  to  Colchis  in  quest  of  the 
Golden  Fleece.  Medea  fell  in  love  with  him, 
and  they  exchanged  oaths  of  fidelity,  and 
when  he  had  overcome  all  the  difficulties 
which  he  had  to  encounter,  Medea  embarked 
with  him  for  Greece.  She  lived  in  Corinth 
with  her  husband  Jason  for  ten  years,  with 
much  conjugal  happiness,  when  he  became 
enamored  with  Glance,  daughter  of  Creon, 
king  of  Corinth.  To  avenge  herself  on  Jason 
she  caused  the  destruction  of  Glauce,  and 
killed  her  two  children  in  his  presence. 
Medusa.  One  of  the  three  Gorgons.  daughter  of 
Phorcys  and  Ceto.  She  was  the  only  one  of 
the  Gorgons  subject  to  mortality.  She  was 
celebrated  for  her  personal  charms  and  the 
beauty  of  her  hair,  which  Minerva  changed 
into  serpents.  According  to  Apollodorus  and 
others,  the  Gorgons  were  born  with  snakes  on 
their  heads  instead  of  hair,  and  with  yellow 
wings  and  brazen  hands.  Perseus  rendered 
himself  famous  by  his  conquest  of  Medusa. 
He  cut  off  her  head  and  placed  it  on  the  aegis 
of  Minerva.  The  head  had  the  power  of 
changing  those  who  looked  at  it  into  stone. 
Medusa,  as  we  are  informed  by  Lord  Lytton, 
was  an  expression  applied  to  Mary  Queen  of 
Scots  in  her  own  day,  and  in  his  brilliant 
poem,  "The  Last  Days  of  Queen  Elizabeth," 
he  speaks  of  the  unfortunate  queen  as 
"  Thou  soft  Medusa  of  the  fated  line." 


Melea  ger.  A  celebrated  hero  of  antiquity  who 
signalized  himself  in  the  Argonautic  expedi- 
tion, and  especially  by  killing  the  Calydonian 
boar,  a  famous  event  in  mythological  history. 

Melpomene.  One  of  the  Muses,  daughter  of 
Jupiter  and  Mnemosyne.  She  presided  over 
tragedy.  She  is  generally  represented  as  a 
young  woman  wearing  a  buskin  and  holding 
a  dagger  in  her  hand. 

Mem  non.  A  king  of  Ethiopia,  son  of  Tithonus 
and  Aurora.  He  came  with  ten  thousand  men 
to  assist  Priam  in  the  Trojan  war,  where  he 
behaved  with  great  courage,  and  killed  Anti- 
lochus,  Nestor's  son,  on  which  Nestor  chal- 
lenged Memnon  to  fight,  but  he  refused  on 
account  of  the  great  age  of  the  challenger ; 
but  he  fought  Achilles,  who  killed  him.  A 
statue  was  erected  in  his  honor  which  had  the 
property  of  uttering  a  melodious  sound  every 
day  at  sunrise.  Tennyson,  in  his  "Palace  of 
Art,"  alludes  to  this  statue  thus  : — 

"  As  morn  from  Memnon  drew 
Rivers  of  melodies." 

Menander.  A  celebrated  comic  poet  of  Athens, 
educated  under  Theophrastus.  He  was  uni- 
versally esteemed  by  the  Greeks.  He  wrote 
io3  comedies,  of  which  only  a  few  fragments 

Menela'us.  A  king  of  Sparta,  brother  to 
Agamemnon.  He  married  Helen,  the  most 
beautiful  woman  of  her  time.  Paris,  having 
arrived  in  Sparta  in  the  absence  of  Menelaus, 


persuaded  her  to  elope  with  him.  which  was 
the  cause  of  the  Trojan  war.  In  the  tenth 
year  of  the  war  Helen,  it  is  said,  obtained  the 
forgiveness  of  Menelaus,  with  whom  she  re- 
turned to  Sparta,  where,  shortly  after  his  re- 
turn, he  died. 

Mene  nius  Agrip'pa.  A  celebrated  Roman  who 
appeased  the  Roman  populace  in  the  infancy 
of  the  consular  government  by  repeating  to 
them  the  well-known  fable  of  the  belly  and 
limbs.     He  lived  B.C.  495. 

Menip'pus.  A  Cynic  philosopher  of  Phoenicia. 
He  was  originally  a  slave,  and,  obtaining  his 
liberty,  became  notorious  as  a  usurer.  He 
wrote  thirteen  books  of  satires. 

Mentor.  A  faithful  friend  of  Ulysses,  and  guide 
and  instructor  of  his  son,  Telemachus.  The 
term  Mentor  has  become  proverbial  as  applied 
to  any  one  who  is  an  educator  of  youth. 

Mercu'rius.  A  celebrated  god  of  antiquity,  called 
Hermes  by  the  (ireeks.  He  was  the  mes- 
senger of  the  gods,  and  conducted  the  souls  of 
the  dead  into  the  infernal  regions.  He  pre- 
sided over  orators,  merchants,  and  was  also 
the  god  of  thieves.  The  invention  of  the  lyre 
is  ascribed  to  him.  This  he  gave  to  Apollo, 
and  received  in  exchange  theCaduceus.  which 
the  god  of  poetry  used  to  drive  the  flocks  of 
King  Admetus. 

Mer  ope.  One  of  the  Atlantides.  She  married 
Sisyphus,  son  of  ^olus,  and  was  changed  into 
a  constellation. 


Me'rops.  A  king  of  the  island  of  Cos,  who  mar- 
ried Clymene,  one  of  the  Oceanides.  He  was 
changed  into  an  eagle,  and  placed  among  the 

Messali'na,  Valeria,  was  notorious  for  her  vices. 
She  married  the  emperor  Claudius,  who, 
wearied  with  her  misconduct,  cited  her  to  ap- 
pear before  him  and  reply  to  the  accusations 
which  were  brought  against  her,  on  which  she 
attempted  to  destroy  herself,  but  failing  to  do 
so,  was  slain  by  one  of  the  tribunes  who  had 
been  sent  to  summon  her. 

Metelli.  The  surname  of  the  family  of  the 
Ccccilii  at  Rome,  the  most  noted  of  whom  are 
—a  general  who  defeated  the  Achaeans,  took 
Thebes,  and  invaded  Macedonia;  Quintus 
Csecilius.  rendered  famous  by  his  successes 
against  Jugurtha.  the  king  of  Numidia;  Q. 
Csecilius  Celer,  who  distinguished  himself 
against  Catiline.  He  died  fifty-seven  years 
before  Christ,  greatly  lamented  by  Cicero, 
who  was  one  of  his  warmest  friends  ;  L.  Cae- 
cilius,  a  tribune  in  the  civil  wars  of  Ccesarand 
Pompey,  who  favored  the  cause  of  Pompey ; 
Q.  Csecilius,  a  warlike  general  who  conquered 
Crete  and  Macedonia;  Metellus  Cimber,  one 
of  the  conspirators  against  Caesar.  He  gave 
the  signal  to  attack  and  murder  the  dictator. 

Micip'sa.     A  king  of  Numidia,  son  of  Masinissa. 
who,  at  his  death,  b.c.  119,  left  his  kingdom 
between  his  sons,   Adherbal  and  Hiempsal, 
and  his  nephew  Jugurtha. 



Mi'das.  A  king  of  Phrygias,  son  of  Gordius  oi 
Gorgias.  According  to  some  traditions,  in 
the  early  part  of  his  life  he  found  a  treasure, 
to  which  he  owed  his  greatness  and  opulence. 
He  showed  hospitality  to  Silenus,  in  return 
for  which  Bacchus  permitted  him  to  choose 
whatever  recompense  he  pleased.  He  de- 
manded of  the  god  that  whatever  he  touched 
might  be  turned  into  gold.  His  wish  was 
granted,  but  when  the  very  food  which  he  at- 
tempted to  eat  became  gold  in  his  mouth  he 
prayed  Bacchus  to  revoke  the  favor,  and  he 
was  ordered  to  wash  himself  in  the  river 
Pactolus,  the  sands  oi  which  were  turned  into 
gold  by  the  touch  of  Midas.  Afterward,  in 
consequence  of  maintaining  that  Pan  was 
superior  to  Apollo  in  singing  and  playing  the 
flute,  he  had  his  ears  changed  into  those  of  an 
ass  by  the  god. 

Mi'lo.  A  celebrated  athlete  of  Crotona  in  Italy. 
He  is  said  to  have  carried  on  his  shoulders  a 
bullock  for  a  considerable  distance,  and  to 
have  killed  it  with  a  blow  from  his  fist,  and 
eaten  it  in  one  day.  In  his  old  age  he  at- 
tempted to  pull  up  a  tree  by  the  roots,  which, 
when  half-cleft,  re-united,  and  his  hands  re- 
maining imprisoned  in  the  tree,  he  was  eaten 
by  wild  beasts,  about  500  years  before  the 
Christian  era. 

Milti'ades,  son  of  Simon,  was  sent  by  the  Atheni- 
ans to  take  possession  of  the  Chersonesus. 
On  his  arrival  he  seized  some  of  the  principal 



inhabitants  of  the  country,  made  himself  ab- 
solute in  Chersonese, and  married  the  daughter 
of  Olorus,  king  of  the  Thracians.  He  was 
present  at  the  celebrated  battle  of  Marathon, 
where  the  command  was  ceded  to  him,  owing 
to  his  superior  abilities.  He  obtained  the 
victory,  but  an  olive  crown,  which  he  de- 
manded from  his  fellow-citizens  as  a  reward 
for  his  valor,  was  refused.  Afterwards  he 
was  intrusted  with  a  fleet  of  seventy  ships, 
with  which  to  punish  some  islands  which  had 
revolted  to  the  Persians.  At  first  he  was  suc- 
cessful, but  afterward  fortune  frowned  on 
him.  He  was  accused  of  treason  and  con- 
demned to  death,  but  his  sentence  was,  owing 
to  his  great  services,  commuted.  He  died  in 
prison  of  some  wounds  he  had  received  which 
became  incurable.  In  "  Childe  Harold"  (canto 
ii.)  Lord  Byron  alludes  to  Marathon  as 

"  The  battle-field  where  Persia's  victim  horde 
First  bow'd  beneath  the  brunt  of  Hellas'  sword." 

Minerva,  the  goddess  of  wisdom,  war,  and  all  the 
liberal  arts,  sprang,  full-grown  and  armed, 
from  the  head  of  Jupiter,  and  was  immediately 
admitted  to  the  assembly  of  the  gods,  and  be- 
came one  of  the  most  faithful  counselors  of 
her  father.  Her  power  in  heaven  was  great : 
she  could  hurl  the  thunders  of  Jupiter,  prolong 
the  life  of  men,  and  bestow  the  gift  of  proph- 
ecy. She  was  known  among  the  ancients 
by  many  names.      She  was  called  Athena. 


Pallas,  Parthenos,  Tritonia  (because  she  was 
worshipped  near  the  lakeTritonis)  and  Hippia 
(because  she  first  taught  mankind  how  to 
manage  the  horse) ,  Sais  (because  she  was 
worshipped  at  Sais) ,  and  some  other  ames. 
She  is  usually  represented  with  a  helmet  on 
her  head  with  a  large  plume  on  it,  in  one  hand 
holding  a  spear,  and  in  the  other  a  shield  with 
the  head  of  Medusa  on  it.  Temples  were 
erected  for  her  worship  in  different  places. 
one  of  the  most  renowned  of  which  was  the 
Parthenon  at  Athens.  From  this  building  a 
large  collection  of  ancient  sculpture  was 
brought  to  the  British  Museum  by  Lord  Elgin 
more  than  seventy  years  ago.  which  is  known 
as  the  "Elgin  Marbles."  Lord  Byron  wrote  a 
scathing  satire  in  reference  to  the  removal  of 
these  marbles,  familiar  to  his  readers  undei 
the  title  of  "The  Curse  of  Minerva."  He  de- 
scribes the  goddess  as  appearing,  grief- 
stricken,  to  appeal  against  what  his  lordship 
deemed  a  desecration  :  — 

"  Yes,  t'was  Minerva's  self;  but  ah,  how  changed 
Since  o'er  the  Dardan  field  in  arms  she  ranged  ! 
Not  such  as  erst,  by  her  divine  command, 
Her  form  appeared  frorn  Phidias'  plastic  hand; 
Gon2  were  the  terrors  of  her  awful  brow, 
Her  idle  segis  bore  no  Gorgon  now." 

Minos.  A  king  of  Crete,  son  of  Jupiter  and 
Europa.  who  gave  laws  to  his  subjects  B.C. 
1406,  which  remained  in  full  force  in  the  age 
of  Plato. 


Mi'nos  the  Second  was  a  son  of  Lycastes,  the  son 
of  Minos  the  first,  and  king  of  Crete.  He 
married  Pasiphse,  the  daughter  of  Sol  and 

Minotau  rus.  A  celebrated  monster,  half  a  man 
and  half  a  bull,  for  which  a  number  of  young 
Athenian  men  and  maidens  were  yearly  ex- 
acted to  be  devoured.  The  Minotaur  was 
confined  in  a  famous  labyrinth,  where  at 
length  it  was  slain  by  Theseus,  who  was 
guided  out  of  the  labyrinth  by  a  clue  of  thread 
given  to  him  by  Ariadne,  daughter  of  King 

Mithrida'tes  First,  king  of  Pontus.  He  was 
tributary  to  the  crown  of  Persia  :  his  attempts 
to  make  himself  independent  of  that  fealty 
proved  fruitless,  being  defeated  in  a  battle 
which  he  had  provoked,  and  having  to  sue  for 

Mithrida'tes,  surnamed  "Eupator"  and  "The 
Great,"  succeeded  to  the  throne  of  Pontus 
when  eleven  years  of  age.  The  beginning  of 
his  reign  was  marked  by  ambition  and  cruelty. 
At  an  early  age  he  mured  himself  to  hard- 
ships by  devoting  himself  to  manly  exercises, 
■  and  sleeping  in  the  open  air  on  the  bare  earth. 
He  was  constantly  engaged  in  warfare  against 
the  Romans,  and  his  contests  with  them  are 
known  as  the  Mithridatic  wars.  His  hatred 
of  the  Romans  was  so  great  that,  to  destroy 
their  power,  he  ordered  all  of  them  that  were 
in  his  dominions  to  be  massacred  ;  and  in  one 


night  150,000  according  to  Plutarch,  or  80,000 
according  to  another  authority,  were  slaugh- 
tered. This  cruel  act  called  for  revenge,  and 
great  armies  were  sent  against  him.  After 
varied  fortunes  Mithridateshad  to  succumb  to 
Pompey,  and,  worn- out  with  misfortune,  at- 
tempted to  poison  himself,  but  unsuccessfully, 
as  the  numerous  antidotes  to  poison  which  in 
early  life  he  had  taken  strengthened  his  con- 
stitution to  resist  the  effect.  He  then  ordered 
one  of  his  soldiers  to  give  him  the  fatal  blow 
with  a  sword,  which  was  done.  He  died 
about  sixty-three  years  before  the  Christian 
era,  in  his  seventy  second  year.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  the  most  formidable  opponent  the 
Romans  ever  had,  and  Cicero  estimates  him 
as  the  greatest  monarch  that  ever  sat  upon  a 
throne.  It  is  recorded  of  him  that  he  con- 
quered twenty-four  nations,  whose  different 
languages  he  knew  and  spoke  fluently.  There 
were  a  number  of  persons  of  the  same  name, 
but  of  inferior  note. 

Mnemosyne.  A  daughter  of  Coelus  and  Terra, 
mother  of  the  nine  Muses.  Jupiter  assumed 
the  form  of  a  shepherd  in  order  to  enjoy  her 

Mo'mus,  the  god  of  mirth  amongst  the  ancients, 
according  to  Hesiod,  was  the  son  of  Nox.  He 
amused  himself  by  satirizing  the  gods  by 
turning  into  ridicule  whatever  they  did. 

Morpheus.  A  minister  of  the  god  Somnus,  who 
imitated  very  naturally  the  gestures,  words, 


and  manners  of  mankind.  He  is  sometimes 
called  the  god  of  sleep.  He  is  generally  rep- 
resented as  a  sleeping  child,  of  great  corpu- 
lence, with  wings. 

Mos'chus.  A  Greek  bucolic  poet  in  the  age  of 
Ptolemy  Philadelphus.  His  eclogues  are 
characterized  by  sweetness  and  elegance,  and 
are  said  to  be  equal  in  merit  to  the  productions 
of  Theocritus. 

Mure  na.  A  celebrated  Roman,  who  invaded  the 
dominions  of  Mithridates,  at  first  with  success 
but  afterward  he  met  with  defeat.  He  was 
honored  with  a  triumph  on  his  return  to  Rome. 

Mu'sa.  The  Muses,  certain  goddessis  who  pre- 
sided over  poetry,  music,  dancing,  and  all  the 
liberal  arts.  They  were  daughters  of  Jupiter 
and  Mnemosyne,  and  were  nine  in  number, 
Clio,  Euterpe,  Thalia,  Melpomene.  Terpsi- 
chore, Erato,  Polyhymnia,  Calliope,  and 

Mycenae.  A  town  of  Argolis  said  to  have  been 
built  by  Perseus.  It  received  its  name  from 
Mycene,  a  nymph  of  Laconia.  It  was  taken 
and  destroyed  by  the  Argives. 

Naiades.  Inferior  deities  who  presided  over 
rivers,  springs,  wells,  and  fountains.  The 
Naiads  generally  inhabited  the  country,  and 
resorted  to  the  woods  and  meadows  near  the 
stream  over  which  they  presided.  They  are 
represented  as  young  and  beautiful  girls  lean- 
ing on  an  urn,  from  which  flows  a  stream  of 


water,  ^gle  was  the  fairest  of  them,  accord- 
ing to  Virgil.  The  word  Naiad  has  become 
Anglicized,  and  is  in  frequent  use,  especially 
by  the  poets.  Thus  Scott  says  ("Lady  of  the 
Lake,"  canto  i.  verse  17), 

"  In  listening  mood  she  seemed  to  stand 
The  guardian  Naiad  of  the  strand." 

Narcis  sus.  A  beautiful  youth,  son  of  Cephisus 
and  the  nymph  Liriope,  was  born  at  Thespis 
in  Boeotia.  He  saw  his  image  reflected  in  a 
fountain  and  became  in  love  with  it,  thinking 
it  to  be  the  nymph  of  the  place.  His  fruitless 
attempts  to  reach  this  beautiful  object  so  pro- 
voked him,  that  he  killed  himself.  His  blood 
was  changed  into  a  flower  which  still  bears 
his  name. 

Nemae'a.  A  town  of  Argolis,  with  a  wood  where 
Hercules  in  the  sixteenth  year  of  his  age  killed 
the  celebrated  Nemscan  lion.  It  was  the  first 
of  the  labors  of  Hercules  to  destroy  the  mon- 
ster, and  when  he  found  that  his  arrows  and 
clubs  were  useless  against  an  animal  whose 
skin  was  impenetrable,  he  seized  it  in  his 
arms  and  strangled  it. 

Nemesis.  One  of  the  infernal  deities,  daughter 
of  Nox.  She  was  the  goddess  of  vengeance. 
She  is  made  one  of  the  Parctc  by  some  mythol- 
ogists,  and  is  represented  with  a  helm  and  a 
wheel.  The  term  is  sometimes  used  to  signify 
vengeance  itself. 

Neoptol  emus.     A  king  of  Epirus,  son  of  Achilles 


and  Deidamia,  called  also  Pyrrhus.  He 
greatly  signalized  himself  during  the  siege  of 
Troy,  and  he  was  the  first  who  entered  the 
wooden  horse.  He  was  inferior  to  none  of  the 
Grecian  warriors  in  valor.  Ulysses  and  Nes- 
tor alone  were  his  superiors  in  eloquence  and 

Ne'pos,  Cornelius.  A  celebrated  historian  in  the 
reign  of  Augustus,  and,  like  the  rest  of  his 
literary  contemporaries,  he  enjoyed  the 
patronage  and  obtained  the  favor  of  the  em- 
peror. He  was  the  intimate  friend  of  Cicero 
and  Atticus,  and  recommended  himself  to 
notice  by  delicacy  of  sentiment  and  a  lively 
disposition.  Of  all  his  valuable  works  the 
only  one  extant  is  his  Lives  of  illustrious 
Greek  and  Roman  generals. 

Neptu'nus.  One  of  the  gods,  son  of  Saturn  and 
Ops,  and  brother  to  Jupiter  and  Pluto.  He 
was  devoured  by  his  father  as  soon  as  he  was 
born,  and  restored  to  life  again  by  a  potion 
given  to  Saturn,  by  Metis,  the  first  wife  of 
Jupiter.  Neptune  shared  with  his  brothers 
the  empire  of  Saturn,  and  received  as  his  por- 
tion the  kingdom  of  the  sea.  He  did  not  think 
this  equivalent  to  the  empire  of  heaven  and 
earth  which  Jupiter  had  claimed,  therefore 
he  conspired  to  dethrone  him .  The  conspiracy 
was  discovered,  and  Jupiter  condemned  Nep- 
tune to  build  the  walls  of  Troy.  He  married 
Amphitrite,  who  thus  broke  a  vow  she  had 
made  of  perpetual  celibacy.     The  lerm  Nep- 


tune  is  often  used  to  signify  the  sea  itself, 
thus  Shakspeare  ("Tempest,"  act  v.  scene  i) 

"  Ye  that  on  the  sands  with  printless  foot 
Do  chase  the  ebbing  Neptune." 

Nereides.  Nymphs  of  the  sea,  daughters  of 
Nereus  and  Doris.  According  to  most  of  the 
mytliologists,  they  were  fifty  in  number. 
They  are  represented  as  young  and  handsome 
girls,  sitting  on  dolphins  and  armed  with 

Nero,  Claudius  Domit  ius  Caesar.  A  celebrated 
Roman  emperor,  son  of  Caius  Domitius 
Ahenobarbus  and  Agrippina,  the  daughter  of 
Germanicus.  His  name  is  the  synonym  for 
cruelty  and  vice.  In  the  night  it  was  his  wont 
to  sally  out  from  his  palace  to  visit  the  mean- 
est taverns  and  the  different  scenes  of  de- 
pravity that  were  to  be  found.  He  appeared 
on  the  stage,  sometimes  representing  the 
meanest  characters.  He  resolved  to  imitate 
the  burning  of  Troy,  and  caused  Rome  to  be 
set  on  fire  in  different  places,  the  flames  being 
unextinguished  for  nine  days,  and  he  enjoyed 
the  terrible  scene.  During  the  conflagration 
he  placed  himself  on  the  top  of  a  tower  and 
sang,  accompanying  himself  on  a  lyre,  of  the 
destruction  of  Troy.  Many  conspiracies  were 
formed  against  him,  the  most  dangerous  of 
which  he  was  saved  from  by  the  confession  of 
a  slave.  He  killed  himself  a.d.  68,  in  the 
thirty  second  year  of  his  age,  after  a  reign  of 


thirteen  years  and  eight  months.  "Wretch 
that  he  was,  it  is  said  that  he  had  some  few  to 
mourn  for  him,  and  Suetonius  records  that 
some  unseen  hand  had  placed  flowers  on  his 
tomb.  This  incident  is  alluded  to  by  Lord 
Byron  in  these  exquisite  lines  at  the  end  of  the 
third  canto  of  "Don  Juan"  : 

"  When  Nero  perished  by  the  justest  doom, 

Which  ever  the  destroyer  yet  destroyed, 
Amidst  the  roar  of  liberated  Rome, 

Of  nations  freed,  and  the  world  overjoy'd, 
Some  hands  unseen  strew'd  flowers  upon  his  tomb; 

Perhaps  the  weakness  of  a  heart  not  void 
Of  feeling  for  some  kindness  done  when  power 

Had  left  the  wretch  an  uncorrupted  hour.'' 

Ner'va,  M.  Cocce  ius.  A  Roman  emperor  after 
the  death  of  Domitian,  a.d.  96.  He  rendered 
himself  popular  by  his  mildness  and  gen- 
erosity. In  his  civil  character  he  set  an  ex- 
ample of  good  manners  and  sobriety.  He 
made  an  oath  that  no  senator  should  suffer 
death  during  his  reign,  which  he  carried  out 
by  pardoning  two  members  of  the  senate  who 
had  conspired  against  his  life.  He  died  in 
his  seventy-second  year  a.d.  gS,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Trajan. 

Nessus.  A  celebrated  Centaur  killed  by  Hercules 
for  insulting  Dejanira. 

Nes  tor.  A  son  of  Xeleus  and  Chloris,  nephew  to 
Pelias,  and  grandson  to  Neptune.  He  was 
present  at  the  bloody  battle  between  the 
Lapithse  and  the  Centaurs,  which  took  place 
at  the  nuptials  of  Pirithous.     As  king  of  Pylos 


he  led  his  soldiers  to  the  Trojan  war,  where 
he  distinguished  himself  among  the  Grecian 
chieftains  by  eloquence,  wisdom,  and  pru- 
dence. Homer  makes  his  character  as  the 
most  perfect  of  all  his  heroes.  After  the 
Trojan  war  Nestor  retired  to  Greece,  where 
he  lived  during  his  declining  3'ears  in  peace 
and  tranquillity.  The  manner  and  time  of  his 
death  are  unknown. 

Ni'nus.  A  son  of  Belus.  He  built  Nineveh  and 
founded  the  Assyrian  monarchy,  of  w^hich  he 
was  the  first  sovereign,  b.c.  2059.  ^^  married 
Semiramis,  whose  husband  had  destroyed 
himself  through  fear  of  Ninus.  He  reigned 
fifty-two  years. 

Ni'obe.  A  daughter  of  Tantalus,  king  of  Lydia, 
and  Euryanassa,  or  Dione.  She  married 
Amphion,  and,  according  to  Hesiod,  they 
had  ten  sons  and  ten  daughters.  All  the  sons 
of  Niobe  expired  by  the  darts  of  Apollo,  and 
all  the  daughters,  except  Chloris,  were  de- 
stroyed by  Diana.  Niobe,  overwhelmed  with 
grief,  was  changed  into  a  stone. 

Nito'cris.  A  celebrated  queen  of  Babylon,  who 
built  a  bridge  across  the  Euphrates  in  the 
middle  of  that  city,  and  dug  a  number  of  re- 
servoirs for  the  superfluous  water  of  the  river. 

Nom'ades.  A  name  given  to  people  who  had  no 
fixed  habitation,  and  who  continually  changed 
their  place  of  residence  in  quest  of  fresh 
pastures  for  the  cattle  they  tended.  There 
were  Nomades  in  Scythia,  India,  Arabia,  etc. 


The  word  is  in  constant  use  as  Anglicized— 
Nomad — meaning  any  one  who  leads  a  wan- 
dering and  unsettled  life. 

Nox.  One  of  the  most  ancient  deities  among  the 
heathens,  daughter  of  Chaos.  She  gave  birth 
to  the  Day  and  the  Light,  and  was  mother  of 
the  Parcse,  Hesperides,  Dreams,  Death,  etc. 

Nu'ma  Pompil'ius.  A  celebrated  philosopher  of 
Cures.  He  married  Tatia,  daughter  of  Tatius, 
king  of  the  Sabines.  and  at  her  death  he  re- 
tired into  the  country  to  devote  himself  to 
literary  pursuits.  At  the  death  of  Romulus 
the  Romans  fixed  on  him  to  be  their  new  king. 
Numa  at  first  refused  the  offer  of  the  crown, 
but  at  length  was  prevailed  on  to  accept  it. 
He  endeavored  to  inculcate  into  the  minds  of 
his  subjects  a  reverence  for  the  deity,  and  he 
did  all  he  could  to  heal  their  dissensions.  He 
encouraged  the  report  of  his  visits  to  the 
nymph  Egeria.  and  made  use  of  her  name  to 
give  sanction  to  the  laws  which  he  had  made. 
He  dedicated  a  temple  to  Janus,  which,  dur- 
ing his  whole  reign,  remained  closed  as  a 
mark  of  peace  and  tranquillity  at  Rome. 
Numa  died  after  a  reign  of  forty-three  years 
(B.C.  672),  during  which  he  had  given  en- 
couragement to  the  useful  arts,  and  had  culti- 
vated peace. 
Nym'phae.  Certain  female  deities  among  the 
ancients.  They  were  generally  divided  into 
two  classes — nymphs  of  the  land  and  nymphs 
of  the  sea.     Of  the  former  some  presided  over 


woods,  and  were  called  Dryades  and  Hama- 
dryades.  Of  the  sea  nymphs  some  were  called 
Oceanides,  Nereides,  Naiades,  etc. 

Ocean  ides  and  Oceanit'ides.  Sea  nymphs, 
daughters  of  Oceanus,  from  whom  they  re- 
ceived their  name.  According  to  Apollodorus 
they  were  3,000  in  number,  while  Hesiod 
speaks  of  them  as  consisting  of  forty-one. 

Oce'anus.  A  powerful  deity  of  the  sea,  son  of 
Coelus  and  Terra.  He  married  Tethys,  the 
Oceanides  being  their  children. 

Octa'via.  A  Roman  lady,  sister  to  the  emperor 
Augustus,  celebrated  for  her  beauty  and 
virtues.  She  married  Claudius  Marcellus, 
and,  after  his  death,  Antony,  who  for  some 
time  was  attentive  to  her,  but  eventually  de- 
serted her  for  Cleopatra. 

Octavia  nus,  or  Octa  vius  Caesar.  A  famous 
Roman,  who,  after  the  battle  of  Actium,  had 
bestowed  on  him  by  the  senate  the  surname 
Augustus,  as  expressing  his  dignity  and 

Odena'tus.  A  celebrated  prince  of  Palmyra.  At 
an  early  period  of  his  life  he  inured  himself 
to  bear  fatigue  by  hunting  wild  beasts.  He 
was  a  faithful  ally  of  the  Romans,  and  gave 
great  offense  to  Sapor,  king  of  Persia,  in  con- 
sequence. In  the  warfare  which  ensued  he 
obtained  advantage  over  the  troops  of  Sapor, 
and  took  his  wife  prisoner,  besides  gaining 
great  booty.     He  died  by  the  hand  of  one  of 


his  relations  whom  he  had  offended.  Zenobia 
succeeded  him  on  the  throne. 

CE'dipus.  A  son  of  Laius,  king  of  Thebes,  and 
Jocasta.  Laius  was  informed  by  the  oracle, 
as  soon  as  he  married  Jocasta,  that  he  would 
perish  by  the  hands  of  his  son.  On  his  birth 
CEdipus  was  given  to  a  domestic,  with  orders 
to  expose  him  to  death  on  the  mountains, 
where  he  was  found  by  one  of  the  shepherds 
of  Polybus,  king  of  Corinth.  Periboea,  the 
wife  of  Polybus,  educated  him  as  her  own 
child,  tending  him  with  great  care.  In  after 
life  he  met  Laius  in  a  narrow  lane  in  a  chariot, 
and  being  haughtily  ordered  to  make  way  for 
Laius,  a  combat  ensued  in  which  Laius  was 
slain.  After  this  CEdipus  was  attracted  to 
Thebes  by  the  fame  of  the  Sphinx,  who  de- 
voured all  those  who  attempted  to  explain 
without  success  the  enigmas  which  she  pro- 
pounded. The  enigma  proposed  by  the 
Sphinx  to  CEdipus  was  : — What  animal  in  the 
morning  walks  upon  four  feet,  at  noon  upon 
two,  and  in  the  evening  upon  three?  CEdipus 
solved  the  riddle  by  replying  that  the  animal 
was  man,  who  in  childhood  crawls  on  his 
hands  and  feet,  on  attaining  manhood  walks 
on  two  feet  erect,  and  in  the  evening  of  life 
supports  his  tottering  steps  with  a  staff.  The 
monster,  on  hearing  the  correct  solution  of  the 
riddle,  dashed  her  head  against  a  rock  and 

CE'neus.     A  king  of  Calydon,  son  of  Parthaon  or 


Portheus  and  Euryte.  He  married  Althaea, 
their  children  being  Clymenus,  Meleager, 
Gorge,  and  Dejanira.  In  a  general  sacrifice  he 
made  to  the  gods  he  slighted  Diana,  who,  in 
revenge,  sent  a  wild  boar  to  waste  his  country. 
The  animal  was  killed  by  Meleager  in  the 
celebrated  Calydonian  boar  hunt.  After  this 
misfortunes  overtook  CEneus,  and  he  exiled 
himself  from  Calydon,  and  died  on  his  way  to 

GEnom'aus.  King  of  Pisa,  in  Elis,  and  father  of 
Hippodamia.  He  was  told  by  the  oracle  that 
he  would  perish  by  his  son-in-law.  Being 
skilful  in  driving  a  chariot,  he  announced  that 
he  would  give  his  daughter  in  marriage  only 
to  some  one  who  could  defeat  him  in  a  race, 
death  being  the  result  to  those  who  were  de- 
feated. After  a  number  of  aspirants  had  con- 
tended and  failed,  Pelops,  son  of  Tantalus, 
entered  the  lists,  and  by  bribing  the  charioteer 
of  CEnomaus.  who  provided  a  chariot  with  a 
broken  axle-tree,  Pelops  won  the  race,  and 
married  Hippodamia,  becoming  king  of  Persia. 
CEnomaus  was  killed  in  the  race. 

Olym'pia.  Celebrated  games  which  received  their 
name  either  from  Olympia.  where  they  were 
observed,  or  from  Jupiter  Olympius,  to  whom 
they  were  dedicated. 

Olym'pus.  A  mountain  in  Macedonia  and  Thes- 
saly.  The  ancients  supposed  that  it  touched 
the  heavens,  and  thus  they  have  made  it  the 
residence  of  the  gods,  and  the  place  where 


Jupiter  held  his  court.  On  the  top  of  the 
mountain,  according  to  the  poets,  eternal 
spring  reigned. 

Om'phale.  A  queen  of  Lydia,  daughter  of  Jar- 
danus.  She  married  Tmolus,  who  at  his 
death  left  her  mistress  of  his  kingdom.  She 
had  heard  of  the  exploits  of  Hercules,  and 
wished  to  see  him.  After  he  had  slain 
Eurytus,  Hercules  was  ordered  to  be  sold  as 
a  slave,  and  was  purchased  by  Omphale,  who 
gave  him  his  liberty.  He  became  in  love 
with  Omphale,  who  reciprocated  his  passion. 
He  is  represented  by  the  poets  as  being  so 
infatuated  with  her  that  he  sat  spinning  by 
her  side  surrounded  by  her  women,  while  she 
garbed  herself  with  his  lion's  skin,  arming 
herself  with  his  club. 

Oppianus.  A  Greek  poet  of  Cilicia.  He  wrote 
some  poems  celebrated  for  their  sublimity 
and  elegance.  Caracalla  gave  him  a  piece  of 
gold  for  every  verse  in  one  of  his  poems. 
Oppian  died  of  the  plague  in  the  thirtieth 
year  of  his  age. 

Ops.  A  daughter  of  Coelus  and  Terra,  the  same 
as  the  Rhea  of  the  Greeks,  who  married 
Saturn,  and  became  mother  of  Jupiter.  She 
was  known  among  the  ancients  by  the  dif- 
ferent names  of  Cybele,  Bona  Dea.  Magna 
Mater,  Thya.  Tellus,  and  Proserpina. 

Ores'tes.  A  son  of  Agamemnon  and  Clytem- 
nestra.  His  father  was  slain  by  Clytemnestra 
and  ^gisthus,  but  young  Orestes  was  saved 


from  his  mother's  dagger  by  his  sister  Electra, 
called  by  Homer  Laodicea.  and  was  conveyed 
to  the  house  of  Strophius,  king  of  Phocis,  who 
had  married  a  sister  of  Agamemnon.  He 
was  indulgently  treated  by  Strophius,  who 
educated  him  with  his  son  Pylades.  The  two 
young  princes  formed  the  most  inviolable 
friendship.  When  Orestes  had  arrived  at 
years  of  manhood  he  avenged  his  father's 
death  by  killing  his  mother  Clytemnestra. 

Or'igen.  A  Greek  writer,  celebrated  for  his 
learning  and  the  sublimity  of  his  genius.  He 
suffered  martyrdom  in  his  sixty-ninth  year. 
His  works  are  numerous,  consisting  of  com- 
mentaries on  the  Scriptures  and  various 

Orpheus.  A  son  of  Q£ger  and  the  Muse  Calliope. 
Some  suppose  him  to  be  the  son  of  Apollo. 
He  received  a  lyre  from  Apollo,  or,  according 
to  some,  from  Mercury,  on  which  he  played 
in  such  a  masterly  manner  that  the  melodious 
sounds  caused  rivers  to  cease  to  flow,  and 
savage  beasts  to  forget  their  wildness.  He 
married  Eurydice,  who  died  from  the  bite  of 
a  serpent.  Orpheus  felt  her  death  acutely, 
and  to  recover  her  he  visited  the  infernal  re- 
gions. Pluto,  the  king  of  the  infernal  re- 
gions, was  enraptured  with  the  strains  of 
music  from  the  lyre  of  Orpheus,  and,  accord- 
ing to  the  poets,  the  wheel  of  Ixion  stopped, 
the  stone  of  Sisyphus  stood  still,  Tantalus 
forgot  his  burning  thirst,  and  even  the  Furies 


relented,  so  fascinating  were  the  .sounds  ex- 
tracted from  the  lyre.  Phito  was  moved  by 
the  sorrow  of  Orpheus,  and  consented  to  re- 
store Eurydice  to  him,  provided  he  forbore  to 
look  behind  him  till  he  had  reached  the  ex- 
tremity  of  his  domain.  Orpheus  agreed  to 
this,  but  forgot  his  promise,  and  turned  round 
to  look  at  Eurydice,  who  instantly  vanished 
from  his  sight.  After  this  he  separated  him- 
self from  the  society  of  mankind,  and  the 
Thracian  women,  whom  he  had  offended  by 
his  coldness,  attacked  him  while  they  cele- 
brated the  orgies  of  Bacchus,  and  after  they 
had  torn  his  body  to  pieces  they  threw  his  head 
into  the  Hebrus.  Mr.  Wiffen,  in  a  translation 
from  the  Spanish  of  Garcilaso  de  la  Vega,  thus 
beautifully  alludes  to  the  strains  of  Orpheus : 

"  Had  I  the  sweet  resounding:  lyre, 

Whose  voice  could  in  a  moment  chain 
The  howling  wind's  ungovern'd  ire. 

And  movement  of  the  raging  main. 

On  savage  hill  the  leopard  rein. 
The  lion's  fiery  soul  entrance. 

And  lead  along  with  golden  tones. 

The  fascinated  trees  and  stones. 
In  voluntary  dance.'' 

Osi'ris.  A  great  deity  of  the  Egyptians,  husband 
of  Isis.  The  ancients  differ  in  opinion  con- 
cerning this  celebrated  god.  but  they  all  agree 
that  as  ruler  of  Egypt  he  took  care  to  civilize 
his  subjects,  to  improve  their  morals,  to  give 
them  good  and  salutary  laws,  and  to  teach 
them  agriculture. 


Ovid'ius,  P.  Na'so.  A  celebrated  Roman  poet 
born  at  Sulmo.  He  was  sent  at  an  early  age 
to  Rome,  and  afterward  went  to  Athens  in 
the  sixteenth  year  of  his  age,  where  his  prog- 
ress in  the  study  of  eloquence  was  great.  His 
natural  inclination,  however,  w^as  toward 
poetry,  and  to  this  he  devoted  his  chief  atten- 
tion. His  lively  genius  and  fertile  imagina- 
tion soon  gained  him  admirers ;  the  learned 
became  his  friends ;  Virgil,  Propertius, 
Horace,  and  Tibullus  honored  him  with  their 
correspondence,  and  Augustus  patronized  him 
with  unbounded  liberality.  These  favors, 
however,  were  transitory,  and  he  was  ban- 
ished to  a  place  on  the  Euxine  Sea  by  order 
of  the  emperor.  The  true  cause  of  his  ban- 
ishment  is  not  known.  His  friends  ardently 
entreated  the  emperor  to  permit  him  to  return, 
but  in  vain,  and  he  died  in  the  seventh  or 
eighth  year  of  his  banishment,  in  the  fifty- 
ninth  year  of  his  age,  A.D.17.  A  great  por- 
tion of  his  works  remains.  These  consist  of 
the  "Metamorphoses,"  "Fasti,"  "Epistolse," 
etc.  "While  his  works  are  occasionally  disfig- 
ured by  indelicacy,  they  are  distinguished  by 
great  sweetness  and  elegance. 

Pacto'lus.  A  celebrated  river  of  Lydia.  It  was 
in  this  river  that  Midas  washed  himself  when 
he  turned  into  gold  whatever  he  touched. 

Pae'an.  A  surname  of  Apollo  derived  from  the 
word  pcEan,  a  hymn  which  was  sung  in  his 
honor  for  killing  the  serpent  Python. 


Palae'mon  or  Pale'mon.  A  sea  deity,  son  of 
Athamas  and  Ino.  His  original  name  was 
Melicerta.  He  assumed  the  name  of  Palaemon 
after  being  changed  into  a  sea  deity  by  Nep- 

Palame  des.  A  Grecian  chief,  son  of  Nauplius. 
king  of  Euboea,  and  Clymene.  He  was  sent 
by  the  Greek  princes,  who  were  going  to  the 
Trojan  war,  to  bring  Ulysses  to  the  camp, 
who,  to  withdraw  himself  from  the  expedi- 
tion, had  pretended  to  be  insane.  Palamedes 
soon  penetrated  the  deception,  and  Ulysses 
was  obliged  to  join  in  the  war.  but  an  invet- 
erate enmity  arose  between  the  two,  and  by 
an  unworthy  artifice  Ulysses  procured  the 
death  of  Palamedes.  Palamedes  is  accredited 
with  the  invention  of  dice,  backgammon,  and 
other  games. 

Palatinus,  Mens.  A  celebrated  hill,  the  largest 
of  the  seven  hills  on  which  Rome  was  built. 

Palinu'rus.  A  skillful  pilot  of  the  ship  of  ^neas. 
He  fell  into  the  sea  while  asleep,  and  was  ex- 
posed to  the  waves  for  three  days,  and  on 
reaching  the  shore  was  murdered  by  the  in- 
habitants of  the  place  where  he  landed. 

Palladium.  A  celebrated  statue  of  Pallas.  It 
represented  the  goddess  as  holding  a  spear  in 
her  right  hand,  and  in  her  left  a  distaff  and 
spindle.  It  fell  down  from  heaven  near  the 
tent  of  Ilus  as  he  was  building  the  citadel  of 
Ilium,  while,  according  to  others,  it  fell  in 
Phrygia ;   another  account  says  Dardanus  re- 


ceived  it  as  a  present  from  his  mother  Electra ; 
other  accounts  are  given  of  its  origin.  It  is 
generally  agreed,  however,  that  on  the  pres- 
ervation of  the  statue  the  fate  of  Troy  de- 
pended. This  was  known  to  the  Greeks  dur- 
ing the  Trojan  war,  and  they  contrived  to 
obtain  possession  of  it.  But  some  authors 
say  that  the  true  Palladium  was  not  carried 
away  by  the  Greeks,  but  only  a  statue  which 
had  been  placed  near  it,  and  which  bore  some 
resemblance  to  it. 

Pallas.  A  name  of  Minerva.  She  is  said  to 
have  received  the  name  because  she  killed  a 
noted  giant  bearing  that  name. 

Palmy  ra.  The  capital  of  Palmyrene,  a  country 
on  the  eastern  boundaries  of  Syria,  now  called 
Tadmor.  It  is  famous  as  being  the  seat  of 
government  of  the  celebrated  Queen  Zenobia. 

Pan.  The  god  of  shepherds,  huntsmen,  and  the 
inhabitants  of  the  country.  He  was  in  ap- 
pearance a  monster;  he  liad  two  small  horns 
on  his  head,  and  his  legs,  thighs,  tail,  and 
feet  were  like  those  of  the  goat. 

Pan'darus.  A  son  of  Lycaon,  who  aided  the 
Trojans  in  their  war  with  the  Greeks.  He 
broke  the  truce  which  had  been  agreed  on  by 
the  contending  armies,  and  wounded  Mene- 
laus  and  Diomedes.  He  was  at  last  killed  by 

Pandi  on.  A  king  of  Athens,  father  of  Procne  and 
Philomela.  During  his  reign  there  was  such 
ail  abundance  of  corn,  wine,  and  oil   in  his 


realm  that  it  was  supposed  that  Bacchus  and 
Minerva  had  personally  visited  the  country. 

Pandora.  A  celebrated  woman  ;  the  first  mortal 
female  that  ever  lived,  according  to  Hesiod. 
She  was  made  of  clay  by  Vulcan,  and  having 
received  life,  all  the  gods  made  presents  to 
her.  Venus  gave  her  beauty  and  the  art  of 
pleasing ;  the  Graces  gave  her  the  power  of 
captivating ;  Apollo  taught  her  how  to  sing, 
and  Mercury  instructed  her  in  eloquence. 
Jupiter  gave  her  a  beautiful  box,  which  she 
was  ordered  to  present  to  the  man  who  mar- 
ried her.  This  was  Epimetheus,  brother  of 
Prometheus,  who  opened  the  box,  from  which 
issued  a  multitude  of  evils,  which  became  dis- 
persed all  over  the  world,  and  which  from 
that  fatal  moment  have  never  ceased  to  affect 
the  human  race.  Hope  alone  remained  at  the 
bottom  of  the  box. 

Pansa,  C.  Vib'tus.  A  Roman  consul,  who,  with 
Hirtius,  pursued  the  assassins  of  Caesar,  and 
was  killed  in  a  battle  near  Mutina. 

Pantheon.  A  celebrated  temple  at  Rome,  built 
by  Agrippa  in  the  reign  of  Augustus,  and 
dedicated  to  all  the  gods. 

Par'cae.  The  Fates,  powerful  goddesses  who 
presided  over  the  birth  and  life  of  mankind. 
They  were  three  in  number,  Clotho,  Lachesis, 
and  Atropos,  daughters  of  Nox  and  Erebus, 
according  to  Hesiod,  or,  according  to  what  he 
says  in  another  place,  of  Jupiter  and  Themis. 

Paris.     The   son   of   Priam,   king   of   Troy,  and 


Hecuba  ;  he  was  also  called  Alexander.  He 
was  destined  before  his  birth  to  cause  the  ruin 
of  his  country,  and  before  he  was  born  his 
mother  dreamt  that  he  would  be  a  torch  which 
would  set  fire  to  her  palace.  The  soothsayers 
predicted  that  he  would  be  the  cause  of  the 
destruction  of  Troy.  In  consequence  of  these 
foretold  calamities  Priam  ordered  a  slave  to 
destroy  the  child  immediately  after  birth,  but 
instead  of  acting  thus  the  slave  exposed  the 
child  on  Mount  Ida,  where  some  shepherds 
found  him  and  took  care  of  him.  Paris  gave 
early  proofs  of  courage,  and  his  graceful  con- 
tenance  recommended  him  to  CEnone,  a 
nymph  of  Ida,  whom  he  married.  At  the 
marriage  of  Peleus  and  Thetis  the  goddess  of 
discord,  who  had  not  been  invited,  showed 
her  displeasure  by  throwing  into  the  assembly 
of  the  gods,  who  were  at  the  nuptials,  a 
golden  apple,  on  which  were  the  words : — Let 
it  be  given  to  the  fairest.  The  apple  was 
claimed  by  Juno,  Venus,  and  Minerva.  Paris, 
who  had  been  appointed  to  award  it  to  the 
most  beautiful  of  the  three  goddesses,  gave  it 
to  Venus.  Subsequently  I^aris  visited  Sparta, 
where  he  persuaded  Helen,  wife  of  Menelaus, 
the  most  beautiful  woman  of  the  age,  to  elope 
with  him.  This  caused  the  Trojan  war.  Dif- 
ferent accounts  are  given  of  the  death  of  Paris. 
By  some  he  if?  said  to  have  been  killed  by  one 
of  the  arrows  of  Philoctetes  which  had  once 
belonged  to  Hercules. 


Parme'nio.  A  celebrated  general  in  the  armies 
of  Alexander  the  Great,  by  whom  he  was  re- 
garded with  the  greatest  affection.  The  firm 
friendship  which  existed  between  the  two 
generals  was  broken  in  a  sudden  fit  of  anger 
by  Alexander,  who  ordered  his  friend  to  be 
put  to  death,  b.c.  330. 

Parnassus.  A  mountain  of  Phocis  sacred  to  the 
Muses,  and  to  Apollo  and  Bacchus.  It  was 
named  thus  after  a  son  of  Neptune  who  bore 
that  designation.  Lord  Byron  alludes  to  it  in 
"Childe  Harold,"  canto  i.  : 

"  Oh,  thou  Parnassus  !  whom  I  now  survey, 
Not  in  the  frenzy  of  a  dreamer's  eye, 
Not  in  the  fabled  landscape  of  a  lay. 
But  soaring  snow-clad  through  thy  native  sky, 
In  the  wild  pomp  of  mountain  majesty  !"' 

Parrha'sius.  A  famous  painter  of  Ephesus  in  the 
age  of  Zeuxis,  about  fifteen  years  before 
Christ.  He  contended  on  one  occasion  with 
Zeuxis  for  the  palm  in  painting,  and  Zeuxis 
acknowledged  that  he  was  excelled  by  Par- 

Parthenon.  A  temple  of  Athens  sacred  to  Mi- 
nerva. It  was  destroyed  by  the  Persians,  and 
was  rebuilt  by  Pericles. 

Pasiph'ae.  A  daughter  of  the  vSun  and  of  Per- 
seis,  who  married  Minos,  king  of  Crete.  She 
became  the  mother  of  the  Minotaur  which  was 
killed  by  Theseus. 

Patroclus.  One  of  the  Grecian  chiefs  during  the 
Trojan    war.       He    contracted    an    intimate 


friendship  with  Achilles,  and  when  the  Greeks 
went  to  the  Trojan  war  Patroclus  accompanied 
them.  He  was  the  constant  companion  of 
Achilles,  living  in  the  same  tent,  and  when 
his  friend  refused  to  appear  in  the  field  of 
battle,  because  of  being  offended  with  Aga- 
memnon. Patroclus  imitated  his  example. 
Nestor,  however,  prevailed  on  him  again  to 
take  the  field,  and  Achilles  lent  him  his  ar- 
mor. Hector  encountered  him,  and  after  a 
desperate  fight  slew  him.  The  Greeks  ob- 
tained his  dead  body,  which  was  brought  into 
the  Grecian  camp,  where  Achilles  received  it 
with  great  lamentation,  and  again  taking  the 
field,  killed  Hector,  thus  avenging  the  death 
of  his  friend. 

Pau  lus  iEmil'ius.  A  Roman  celebrated  for  his 
military  achievements,  surnamed  "Macedo- 
nicus"  from  his  conquest  of  ]Macedonia.  In 
earl}'  life  he  distinguished  himself  by  his  ap- 
plication and  for  his  love  for  military  disci- 
pline. In  his  first  consulship  he  reduced  the 
Ligurians  to  subjection,  and  subsequently 
obtained  a  great  victory  over  the  Macedo- 
nians, making  himself  master  of  the  country. 
In  the  office  of  censor,  which  he  filled,  he  be- 
haved with  great  moderation,  and  at  his 
death,  about  i68  years  before  the  Christian 
era,  the  Romans  mourned  deeply  for  him. 

Pausa'nias.  A  Spartan  general  who  greatly  sig- 
nalized himself  at  the  battle  of  Plataea  against 
the  Persians.     He  afterward,  at  the  head  of 


the  Spartan  armies,  extended  his  conquests  in 
Asia,  but  the  haughtiness  of  his  behavior 
made  him  many  enemies.  He  offered,  on 
certain  conditions,  to  betray  Greece  to  the 
Persians,  but  his  perfidy  was  discovered,  on 
which  he  fled  for  safety  to  a  temple  of  Mi- 
nerva,  where  he  was  starved  to  death,   b.c. 


Peg  asus.  A  winged  horse  sprung  from  the  blood 
of  Medusa.  According  to  Ovid  he  fixed  his 
abode  on  Mount  Helicon,  where,  by  striking 
the  earth  with  his  foot,  he  raised  a  fountain 
which  has  been  called  Hippocrene. 

Pe  lens.  A  king  of  Thessaly,  son  of  ^acus  and 
Endeis,  the  daughter  of  Chiron.  He  married 
Thetis,  one  of  the  Nereids. 

Pe  lias.  Son  of  Neptune  and  Tyro.  On  his  birth 
he  was  exposed  in  the  woods,  but  his  life  was 
preserved  by  some  shepherds.  Subsequently 
Tyro  was  married  to  Cretheus,  king  of  lolchos. 
They  had  three  children,  of  whom  ^son  was 
the  eldest.  Pelias  visited  his  mother  after 
the  death  of  Cretheus,  and  usurped  the  author- 
ity which  properly  belonged  to  the  children 
of  the  deceased  monarch.  Jason,  the  son  of 
^son,  who  had  been  educated  by  Chiron,  on 
attaining  manhood  demanded  the  kingdom, 
the  government  of  which  Pelias  had  usurped. 
Jason  was  persuaded  by  Pelias  to  waive  his 
claim  for  the  present,  and  start  on  the  Argo- 
nautic  expedition.  On  his  return,  accompan- 
ied by  the  sorceress  Medea,  she  undertook  to 


restore  Pelias  to  youth,  explaining  that  it  was 
necessary  first  to  cut  his  body  to  pieces  and 
place  the  limbs  in  a  caldron  of  boiling  water. 
This  was  done,  when  Medea  refused  to  fulfil 
her  promise,  which  she  had  solemnly  made  to 
the  daughters  of  Pelias,  who  were  four  in 
number,  and  who  had  received  the  patronymic 
of  the  "  Peliades.  " 

Pe  lion,  sometimes  called  Pelios.  A  celebrated 
mountain  of  Thessaly,  the  top  of  which  is 
covered  with  pine-trees. 

Pelop  Idas.  A  celebrated  general  of  Thebes,  son 
of  Hippoclus.  It  was  owing  to  his  valor  and 
prudence,  combined  with  the  ability  of  Epam- 
inondas,  that  the  famous  victory  of  Leuctra 
was  won. 

Pe'lops.  A  celebrated  prince,  son  of  Tantalus, 
king  of  Phrygia.  He  was  killed  by  his  father, 
and  served  up  as  a  feast  to  the  gods,  who  had 
visited  Phrygia.  He  was  restored  to  life,  and 
married  Hippodamia,  having  won  her  through 
defeating  her  father  in  a  chariot  race. 

Penates.  Certain  inferior  deities  among  the  Ro- 
mans, who  presided  over  the  domestic  affairs 
of  families. 

Penelope.  A  celebrated  princess  of  Greece, 
daughter  of  Icarius,  and  wife  of  Ulysses, 
king  of  Ithaca.  She  became  the  mother  of 
Telemachus,  and  was  obliged  to  part,  with 
great  reluctance,  from  her  husband  when  the 
Greeks  obliged  him  to  go  to  the  Trojan  war. 
The  strife  between  the  hostile  forces  continued 


.  for  ten  years,  and  when  Ulysses  did  not  re- 
turn home  at  the  conclusion  of  the  war  her 
fears  and  anxieties  became  overwhehning. 
She  was  beset  by  a  number  of  suitors,  who 
told  her  that  her  husband  would  never  return. 
She  received  their  advances  with  coldness,  but 
as  she  was  devoid  of  power,  and,  as  it  were, 
almost  a  prisoner  in  their  hands,  she  tempo- 
rized with  them.  After  twenty  years'  absence 
Ulysses  returned,  and  at  once  delivered  her 
from  the  persecutions  of  her  suitors.  Penel- 
ope is  described  by  Homer  as  a  model  of 
female  propriety,  whilst  some  more  modern 
writers  dispute  the  correctness  of  this  view. 
The  accounts  given  by  different  authors  re- 
specting her,  in  fact,  differ  materially.  By 
some  she  is  said  to  have  been  the  mother  of 

Penthesile'a.  A  queen  of  the  Amazons,  daughter 
of  Mars.  She  came  to  assist  Priam  in  the  last 
years  of  the  Trojan  war,  and  was  slain  by 

Per 'gamus.  The  citadel  of  the  city  of  Troy  The 
word  is  often  used  to  signify  Troy.  From  it 
Xerxes  reviewed  his  troops  as  he  marched  to 
invade  Greece. 

Per'icles.  An  Athenian  of  noble  family,  son  of 
Xanthippus  and  Agariste.  His  naturally 
great  mental  powers  were  greatly  improved 
by  attending  the  lectures  of  Zeno  and  other 
philosophers.  He  became  a  commander,  a 
statesman,  and  an  orator,  and  gained  the  es- 


teem  of  the  people  by  his  address  and  liber- 
ality. In  his  ministerial  capacity,  Pericles 
did  not  enrich  himself.  The  prosperity  and 
happiness  of  Athens  was  his  primary  ob- 
ject. He  made  war  against  the  Lacedae- 
monians, and  restored  the  temple  of  Delphi 
to  the  care  of  the  Phocians,  who  had  been 
improperly  deprived  of  that  honorable  trust. 
The  Peloponnesian  war  was  fomented  by  his 
ambitious  views.  He  at  length  lost  his  popu- 
larity, but  only  temporarily,  and  he  was  re- 
stored to  all  the  honors  of  which  he  had  been 
deprived.  A  pestilence  which  prevailed 
proved  fatal  to  him  in  his  seventieth  year, 
about  429  years  before  Christ. 
Perseus.  A  son  of  Jupiter  and  Danae,  the 
daughter  of  Acrisius.  It  had  been  predicted 
by  the  oracle  that  Acrisius  was  to  perish  by 
his  daughter's  offspring,  so  Perseus,  soon 
after  his  birth,  was,  with  his  mother  Danae, 
thrown  into  the  sea.  Both  were  saved,  and 
reached  the  island  of  Seriphos,  where  they 
were  treated  kindly  by  Polydectes,  the  king, 
who,  however,  soon  became  jealous  of  the 
genius  of  Perseus.  Perseus  had  promised 
Polydectes  to  bring  him  the  head  of  the  Gor- 
gon Medusa.  To  enable  him  to  obtain  this 
Pluto  lent  him  a  helmet  which  made  the 
wearer  invisible,  Minerva  gave  him  her  buck- 
ler, and  Mercury  furnished  him  with  wings. 
Thus  equipped  he  found  the  Gorgons,  and  cut 
off  Medusa's  head,  with  which  he  fled  through 


the  air,  and  from  the  blood  which  dropped 
from  It  sprang  the  horse  Pegasus.  During 
his  flight  Perseus  discovered  Andromeda 
chained  to  a  rock  to  be  devoured  by  a  sea 
monster,  which  he  destroyed,  and  married 
Andromeda.  He  now  returned  to  vSeriphos, 
where  he  turned  into  stone  Polydectes  by 
showing  him  Medusa's  head.  By  an  accident, 
in  throwing  a  quoit  he  killed  Acrisius,  thus 
fulfilling  the  prediction  of  the  oracle. 

Perseus  or  Per  ses.  A  son  of  Philip,  king  of 
Macedonia.  He  distinguished  himself  by  his 
enmity  to  the  Romans,  and  when  he  had  made 
sufficient  preparations  he  declared  war  against 
them.  He,  however,  wanted  courage  and 
resolution,  and  though  he  at  first  obtained 
some  advantages  over  the  Roman  armies,  his 
timidity  proved  destructive  to  his  cause.  He 
was  defeated  at  Pydna,  and  soon  after  was 
taken  prisoner,  and  died  in  prison  at  Rome. 

Per  sius,  Au  lus  Flac  cus.  A  Latin  poet  of  Vola- 
terrae.  He  was  of  a  good  family,  and  soon 
became  intimate  with  the  most  illustrious 
Romans  of  his  day.  The  early  part  of  his  life 
was  spent  in  his  native  town,  but  at  the  age 
of  sixteen  he  was  removed  to  Rome,  where  he 
studied  philosophy.  He  died  in  his  thirtieth 
year,  a.d.  62.  The  satires  of  Persius  were 
read  with  pleasure  and  avidity  by  his  con- 

Per'tinax,  Pub'lius  Hel'vius.  A  Roman  emperor 
after  the  death  of  Comraodus.     He  was  de- 


scended  from  an  obscure  family,  and  for  some 
time  was  employed  in  drying  wood  and  mak- 
ing charcoal.  He  entered  on  a  military  life, 
and  by  his  valor  rose  to  offices  of  the  highest 
trust,  and  was  made  consul.  At  the  death  of 
Commodus  he  was  selected  to  succeed  to  the 
throne.  His  patriotism  gained  him  the  affec- 
tion of  the  worthiest  of  his  subjects,  but  there 
were  some  who  plotted  against  him.  He  was 
killed  by  his  soldiers  a.d.  193. 

Petro'nius  Arbiter.  A  favorite  of  Emperor  Nero, 
and  one  of  the  ministers  and  associates  of  his 
pleasures  and  vices.  He  was  made  proconsul 
of  Bithynia,  and  afterward  was  honored  with 
the  consulship.  Eventually  he  became  out 
of  favor  with  Nero,  and  resolved  to  destroy 
himself,  which  he  did  by  having  his  veins 
opened,  a.u.  66.  Petronius  distinguished 
himself  by  his  writings  as  well  as  by  his 
voluptuousness.  He  is  the  author  of  many 
elegant  compositions,  which  are,  however, 
often  characterized  by  impropriety  of  lan- 

Phaedra.  A  daughter  of  Minos  and  Pasiphae, 
who  married  Theseus.  She  became  the  mother 
of  Acamas  and  Demophoon.  She  brought  an 
unjust  accusation  against  Hippolytus  (a  son 
of  The-seus  before  she  married  him) ,  who  was 
killed  by  the  horses  in  his  chariot  taking 
fright,  causing  him  to  be  thrown  under  the 
wheels  and  crushed  to  death.  On  hearing 
this   Phajdra  acknowledged  the  falseness   of 


the  charge  she  had  brought  against  Hippo- 
lytus,  and  hanged  herself  in  despair. 

Phae'drus.  A  Thracian  who  became  one  of  the 
freedmen  of  the  emperor  Augustus.  He 
translated  the  fables  of  ^sop  into  Iambic 

Pha'ethon.  A  son  of  the  Sun,  or  of  Phoebus  and 
Clymene.  According  to  Hesiod  and  Pausa- 
nias  he  was  son  of  Cephalus  and  Aurora,  or 
of  Tithonus  and  Aurora  according  to  Apollo- 
dorus.  He  is,  however,  generally  acknowl- 
edged to  be  son  of  Phoebus  and  Clymene. 
Phoebus  allowed  him  to  drive  the  chariot  of 
the  sun  for  one  day.  Phaethon,  on  receiving 
the  reins,  at  once  showed  his  incapacity ;  the 
horses  became  unmanageable,  and  heaven 
and  earth  were  threatened  with  a  conflagra- 
tion, when  Jupiter  struck  Phaethon  with  a 
thunderbolt,  and  hurled  him  into  the  river 
Po,  where  he  perished. 

Phalaris.  A  tyrant  of  Agrigentum,  who  treated 
his  subjects  with  great  cruelty.  Perillus  made 
him  a  brazen  bull,  inside  of  which  he  proposed 
to  place  culprits,  and  by  applying  fire  burn 
them  to  death.  The  first  to  be  thus  burnt  in 
this  manner  was  Perillus  himself.  The  cruel- 
ties practised  by  Phalaris  were  revenged  by  a 
revolt  of  his  people,  who  put  him  to  death  by 
burning  him  in  the  bull. 

Pha'on.  A  boatman  of  Mitylene,  in  Lesbos.  He 
received  a  box  of  ointment  from  Venus,  who 
had  presented  herself  to  him  in  the  form  of  an 


old  woman.  When  he  had  rubbed  himself 
with  the  unguent  he  became  beautiful,  and 
Sappho,  the  celebrated  poetess,  became  en- 
amored with  him.  For  a  short  time  he  de- 
voted himself  to  her,  but  soon  treated  her 
with  coldness,  upon  which  she  threw  herself 
into  the  sea  and  was  drowned. 

Pharnaba'zus.  A  satrap  of  Persia  who  assisted 
the  Lacedaemonians  against  the  Athenians, 
and  gained  their  esteem  by  his  devotion  to 
their  cause. 

Pha'ros.  A  small  island  in  the  bay  of  Alexan- 
dria, on  which  was  built  a  tower  which  was 
considered  one  of  the  seven  wonders  of  the 
world.  It  was  erected  in  the  reigns  of  Ptolem}' 
Soter  and  Ptolemy  Philadelphus,  the  architect 
being  Sostratus,  the  son  of  Dexiphanes, 

Pharsa'lia.  A  town  of  Thessaly,  famous  for  the 
great  battle  fought  there  between  Julius  Caesar 
and  Pompey,  in  which  the  former  obtained 
the  victory. 

Phid  ias.  A  celebrated  sculptor  of  Athens,  who 
died  B.C.  432.  He  executed  a  statue  of  Mi- 
nerva, which  was  placed  in  the  Pantheon. 

Philip'pi.  A  town  of  Macedonia,  celebrated  for 
two  battles  fought  there,  15.  c.  42,  between 
Augustus  and  Antony  and  the  republican 
forces  of  Brutus  and  Cassius,  in  which  the 
former  were  victorious. 

Philip'pus,  king  of  Macedonia,  was  son  of  Amyn- 
tas,  king  ni  Macedonia.  He  learnt  the  art  of 
war  from  Epaminondas.     He  married  Olym* 


pias.  the  daughter  of  Neoptolemus,  king  of 
the  Molossi,  and  became  father  of  Alexan- 
der the  Great.  Among  the  most  important 
evisnts  of  his  reign  was  the  battle  of  Chyero- 
nea,  which  he  won  from  the  Greeks.  The 
character  of  Philip  is  that  of  a  sagacious,  pru- 
dent, but  artful  and  intriguing,  monarch.  He 
was  assassinated  by  Pausanias  at  the  celebra- 
tion of  the  nuptials  of  his  daughter,  in  the 
forty-seventh  year  of  his  age  and  the  twenty- 
fourth  of  his  reign,  about  336  years  before  the 
Christian  era. 

Philip'pus.  The  last  king  of  Macedonia  of  that 
name  was  son  of  Demetrius.  He  aspired  to 
become  the  friend  of  Hannibal.  His  intrigues 
were  discovered  by  the  Romans,  who  in- 
vaded his  territories,  and  extorted  peace  from 
him  on  terms  which  were  humiliating.  He 
died  in  the  forty-second  year  of  his  reign,  179 
years  before  the  Christian  era. 

Phi'lo.  A  Jewish  writer  of  Alexandria,  a.d.  40. 
His  works  related  to  the  creation  of  the  world, 
sacred  history,  and  the  laws  and  customs  of 
the  Jewish  nation. 

Philocte'tes  was  one  of  the  Argonauts.  He  re- 
ceived from  Hercules  the  arrows  which  had 
been  dipped  in  the  gall  of  the  Hydra.  The 
Greeks,  in  the  tenth  year  of  the  Trojan  war, 
were  informed  by  the  oracle  that  Troy  could 
not  be  taken  without  these  arrows.  Philocte- 
tes  repaired  to  the  Grecian  camp,  where  he 
destroyed  a  number  of  the  Trojans,  among 


whom  was  Paris,  with  the  arrows.  The  ad- 
ventures of  Philoctetes  are  the  subject  of  one 
of  the  best  tragedies  of  Sophocles. 
Philome'la.  A  daughter  of  Pandion,  king  of 
Athens.  Her  sister  Procne  had  married 
Tereus,  king  of  Thrace,  and  being  separated 
from  Philomela  spent  her  time  in  great  mel- 
ancholy. She  persuaded  her  husband  to  go 
to  Athens  and  bring  her  sister  to  Thrace. 
Tereus,  on  the  journey,  treated  Philomela 
with  great  cruelty,  and  cut  off  her  tongue,  con- 
fining her  in  a  lonely  castle,  and  reporting  to 
Procne  that  she  was  dead.  Philomela,  how- 
ever, found  means  to  inform  Procne  that  she 
was  living.  In  revenge  for  the  cruelty  of 
Tereus,  Procne  murdered  his  son  and  served 
him  up  as  food  at  a  banquet.  On  hearing 
this  Tereus  drew  his  sword  to  slay  the  sisters, 
when  he  was  changed  into  a  hoopoe.  Philomela 
into  a  nightingale,  and  Procne  into  a  swallow. 
In  poetry  we  frequently  find  the  nightingale 
alluded  to  as  Philomela,  as  in  this  quatrain, 
which  occurs  in  a  contribution  to  the  "Eto- 
nian :— 

"  Hark  !  upon  the  passing  gale 
Philomela''s  plaintive  wail ! 
Feelings  how  serene  and  tender 
Does  the  lovely  music  render." 

Philopoe'men.  A  celebrated  general  of  the  Achae- 
ans,  born  at  Megalopolis.  At  an  early  age 
he  distinguished  himself  in  the  field  of  battle, 
at  the  same  time  appearing  fond  of  agricul- 


ture  and  a  country  life.  He  adopted  Epami- 
nondas  as  his  model,  and  was  not  unsuccess- 
ful in  imitating  the  prudence  and  other  good 
qualities  of  the  famous  Theban.  When  Me- 
galopolis was  attacked  by  the  Spartans,  Phil- 
opoemen,  then  in  his  thirtieth  year,  gave  the 
most  decisive  proofs  of  his  valor.  Raised  to 
the  rank  of  commander,  he  showed  his  ability 
to  discharge  that  important  trust  by  killing 
with  his  own  hand  Mechanidas,  the  tyrant  of 
Sparta,  and  defeating  his  army.  Sparta  hav- 
ing become,  after  its  conquest,  tributary  to 
the  Achseans,  Philopoemen  enjoyed  the  tri- 
umph of  having  subdued  one  of  the  most 
powerful  states  of  Greece.  He  was  at  length 
made  prisoner  by  the  Messenians,  and  was 
treated  by  their  general,  Dinocrates.  with 
great  severity.  He  was  poisoned  in  his  seven 
tieth  year,  about  1S3  years  before  the  Chris- 
tian era. 

Philos'tratus.  A  famous  Sophist  born  at  Lemnos, 
or,  according  to  some,  at  Athens.  He  came 
to  Rome,  where  he  was  patronized  by  Julia, 
the  wife  of  the  Emperor  Severus.  She  en- 
trusted him  with  some  papers  referring  to 
Apollonius,  whose  life  he  wrote.  This  bio- 
graphy is,  written  with  elegance,  but  contains 
many  exaggerated  descriptions  and  improb- 
able stories. 

Phi'neus.  A  son  of  Agenor,  king  of  Phoenicia, 
or,  according  to  some,  a  son  of  Xeptune,  who 
became  king  of  Thrace.     He  married  Cleopa- 


tra  (called  by  some  Cleobula) ,  the  daughter 
of  Boreas,  their  children  being  Plexippus  and 
Pandion.  After  the  death  of  Cleopatra,  he 
married  Idaea,  the  daughter  of  Dardanus, 
who,  jealous  of  Cleopatra's  children,  accused 
them  of  an  attempt  on  their  father's  life,  and 
they  were  condemned  by  Phineus  to  have  their 
eyes  put  out.  This  cruelty  was  punished  by 
the  gods,  Phineus  being  made  blind,  and  the 
Harpies  were  sent  by  Jupiter  to  keep  him  in 
continual  alarm.  He  recovered  his  sight  by 
means  of  the  Argonauts,  whom  he  received 
with  great  hospitality. 

Phleg  ethon.  A  river  in  the  infernal  regions,  be- 
tween the  banks  of  which  flames  of  fire  flowed 
instead  of  water. 

Phle'gon.  One  of  the  Emperor  Adrian's  f reed- 
men.  He  wrote  a  historical  account  of  Sicily, 
an  account  of  the  principal  places  in  Rome, 
and  treatises  on  different  subjects.  His  style 
was  inelegant,  and  he  evinced  a  want  of  judg- 
ment in  his  writings. 

Pho  cion.  An  Athenian  celebrated  for  his  public 
and  private  virtue.  He  was  distinguished  for 
his  zeal  for  the  general  good,  and  for  his  mili- 
tary abilities.  The  fickleness  of  the  Atheni- 
ans, however,  caused  them  to  lose  sight  of  his 
virtues,  and,  being  accused  of  treason,  he  was 
condemned  to  drink  poison,  which  he  took  with 
the  greatest  heroism.  His  death  occurred 
about  3t8  years  before  the  Christian  era. 

PhcE  nix,  son   of  Amyntor,    king   of  Argos,  and 


Cleobule  or  Hippodamia,  was  preceptor  to 
Achilles.  He  accompanied  his  pupil  to  the 
Trojan  war,  and  Achilles  was  ever  grateful 
for  the  precepts  he  had  received  from  him. 
After  the  fall  of  Troy  he  died  in  Thrace,  and, 
according  to  Strabo,  was  buried  near  Tra- 
chinia,  where  his  name  was  given  to  a  river. 

Phry'ne.  A  beautiful  woman  who  lived  at  Athens 
about  328  years  before  the  Christian  era.  She 
was  beloved  by  Praxiteles,  who  painted  her 
portrait.  It  is  said  that  Apelles  painted  his 
Venus  Anadyomene  after  he  had  seen  Phryne 
on  the  sea-shore  with  dishevelled  hair.  There 
was  another  woman  of  the  same  name,  who 
was  accused  of  impiety.  When  her  judges 
were  about  to  condemn  her  she  unveiled  her 
bosom,  and  her  beauty  so  captivated  them 
that  they  acquitted  her. 

Phryx  us.  A  son  of  Athamas,  king  of  Thebes, 
and  Nephele.  On  the  plea  of  insanity,  Nephele 
was  repudiated  by  Athamas,  who  then  married 
Ino,  who  persecuted  Phryxus  with  inveterate 
hatred,  because  he  was  to  succeed  to  the  throne 
in  preference  to  one  of  her  own  children.  Be- 
ing apprised  that  Ino  had  designs  on  his  life, 
he  started  with  his  sister  Helle  to  go  to  yEetes, 
king  of  Colchis.  According  to  the  poets  they 
mounted  on  a  ram,  whose  fleece  was  gold, 
which  soared  into  the  air,  directing  its  course 
to  Colchis.  Helle  became  giddy,  and  falling 
into  the  sea  (afterward  called  the  Helles- 
pont),was  drowned.     Phryxus  arrived  at  the 


court  of  ^etes,  whose  daughter  Chalciope  he 
married.  Some  time  afterward  he  was  killed 
by  his  father-in-law.  The  murder  of  Phryxus 
gave  rise  to  the  famous  Argonautic  expedition 
under  Jason,  the  object  being  to  recover  the 
Golden  Fleece,  wliich  Jason  succeeded  in  ob- 

Phyl'lis.  A  daughter  of  Sithon,  or,  according  to 
other  writers,  of  Lycurgus,  king  of  Thrace. 
She  received  Demophoon,  who  landed  on  her 
coasts  on  his  return  from  the  Trojan  war,  and 
fell  in  love  with  him,  and  he  reciprocated  her 
affection;  but  afterward  proving  faithless, 
Phyllis  hanged  herself,  and,  according  to  an 
old  tradition,  was  changed  into  an  almond 

Pious.  King  of  Latium.  son  of  Saturn,  who  mar- 
ried Venilia.  As  he  was  hunting  he  was  met 
by  Circe,  who  became  enamored  with  him. 
She  changed  him  into  a  woodpecker. 

Pier'ides.  A  name  given  to  the  Muses,  because 
they  were  born  in  Pieria,  or,  as  some  say,  be- 
cause they  were  supposed  to  be  the  daughters 
of  Pierus,  a  king  of  Macedonia,  who  settled 
in  B(X3otia. 

Pin'darus.  A  celebrated  lyric  poet  of  Thebes. 
When  he  was  young  it  is  said  that  a  swarm  of 
bees  settled  on  his  lips  and  left  on  them  some 
honey,  which  was  regarded  as  a  prognostic  of 
his  future  greatness.  After  his  death  great 
respect  was  shown  to  his  memory,  and  a 
statue  was  erected  in  liis  honor  in  one  of  the 


most  public  places  in  Thebes.  Pindar  is  said 
to  have  died  at  the  age  of  eighty-six,  b.c.  435. 
Of  his  works,  the  odes  only  are  extant :  they 
are  admired  for  sublimity  of  sentiment  and 
grandeur  of  expression. 

Piraeus,  A  celebrated  harbor  at  Athens  about 
three  miles  from  the  city.  It  was  joined  to 
the  town  by  two  walls,  one  built  by  Pericles, 
and  the  other  by  Themistocles. 

Pirith'ous.  Son  of  Ixion  and  Dia,  the  daughter 
of  Deioneus.  He  was  king  of  the  Lapithae, 
and  wished  to  become  acquainted  with  The- 
seus, king  of  Athens,  of  whose  fame  and  ex- 
ploits he  had  heard.  They  became  cordial 
friends.  Pirithous  married  Hippodamia,  and 
invited  the  Centaurs  to  attend  his  nuptials, 
where,  having  become  intoxicated,  they  be- 
haved with  great  rudeness,  on  which  they  were 
attacked  and  overcome  by  Theseus,  Pirithous, 
Hercules,  and  the  rest  of  the  Lapithae.  Many 
of  the  Centaurs  were  slain,  and  the  rest  saved 
their  lives  by  flight. 

Pisan  der.  A  commander  in  the  Spartan  fleet 
during  the  Peloponnesian  war.  He  was  great- 
ly opposed  to  democracy  at  Athens.  He  was 
killed  in  a  naval  battle  near  Cnidus,  b.c.  394. 

Pisis'tratus.  A  celebrated  Athenian  who  distin- 
guished himself  by  valor  in  the  field  and  by 
eloquence  at  home.  He  obtained  a  bodyguard 
of  fifty  men  to  defend  his  person,  and  having 
thus  got  a  number  of  armed  men  on  whom  he 
could  rely,  he  seized  the  citadel  of  Athens, 


and  soon  made  himself  absolute.  After  this 
a  conspiracy  was  formed  against  him,  and  he 
was  banished  from  the  city.  He  soon,  how- 
ever, re-established  himself  in  power,  and 
married  the  daughter  of  Megacles,  one  of  his 
greatest  enemies,  whom  he  afterward  repu- 
diated. On  this  his  popularity  waned,  and 
he  fled  from  Athens,  but  after  an  absence  of 
eleven  years  he  returned,  and  was  received  by 
the  people  with  acclamation.  He  died  about 
527  years  before  the  Christian  era. 
Pi'so.  A  celebrated  family  at  Rome,  eleven  of 
whom  had  obtained  the  consulship,  and  some 
of  whom  had  had  been  honored  with  triumphs 
for  their  victories.  Of  this  family  the  most 
famous  were — Lucius  Calpurnius,  who  was 
tribune  of  the  people  about  149  years  before 
Christ,  and  afterward  consul.  He  gained 
honor  as  an  orator,  a  statesman,  and  a  his- 
torian. Caius,  another  of  the  family,  distin- 
guished himself  during  his  consulship  by  his 
firmness  in  resisting  the  tumults  raised  by  the 
tribunes  and  the  clamors  of  the  people.  Cneus, 
who  was  consul  under  Augustus,  rendered 
himself  odious  by  his  cruelty.  He  was  ac- 
cused of  poisoning  Germanicus,  and,  being 
shunned  by  his  friends,  destroyed  himself. 
Lucius,  a  governor  of  Spain,  who  was  assas- 
sinated by  a  peasant.  Lucius,  a  governor  of 
Rome  for  twenty  years,  during  which  time  he 
discharged  his  duties  with  moderation  and 
justice.     Caius,  who  was  at  the  head  of  a  con 


spiracy  against  Nero.  He  committed  suicide 
by  venesection. 

Pit'tacus,  a  native  of  Mitylene  in  Lesbos,  was  one 
of  the  seven  wise  men  of  Greece.  He  died  in 
the  eighty-second  year  of  his  age.  about  570 
years  before  Christ,  the  latter  part  of  his  life 
being  spent  in  retirement.  Many  of  his 
maxims  were  inscribed  on  the  walls  of  Apollo's 
temple  at  Delphi,  to  show  how  high  an  opinion 
his  countrymen  entertained  of  his  abilities  as 
a  moralist  and  philosopher. 

Plancus,  L.  Muna  tius.  A  Roman  conspicuous 
for  his  follies  and  extravagance.  He  had 
been  consul,  and  had  presided  over  a  pro- 
vince, but  he  forgot  his  dignity,  and  became 
one  of  the  most  servile  flatterers  of  Antony 
and  Cleopatra. 

Platae  a.  A  town  of  Boeotia,  near  Mount  Citheron, 
celebrated  as  the  scene  of  a  battle  between 
Mardonius,  the  general  of  Xerxes,  king  of 
Persia,  and  Pausanias,  who  commanded  the 
Athenians.  The  Persians  were  defeated  with 
great  slaughter. 

Plato.  A  celebrated  philosopher  of  Athens.  He 
was  educated  carefully,  his  mind  being  culti- 
vated by  the  stud}'  of  poetry  and  geometry, 
while  his  body  was  invigorated  by  the  prac- 
tice of  gymnastics.  He  began  his  literary 
career  by  writing  poetry  and  tragedies.  At 
the  age  of  twenty  he  was  introduced  to  Socra- 
tes, with  whom  he  was  for  some  time  a  pupil. 
After   traveling  in  various  countries,   he  re- 



tired  to  the  neighborhood  of  Athens,  where 
his  lectures  were  attended  by  a  crowd  of 
learned,  noble,  and  illustrious  pupils.  He 
died  on  his  birthday  in  the  eighty-first  year  of 
his  age,  about  348  years  before  the  Christian 
era.  His  writings  were  so  celebrated,  and  his 
opinions  so  highly  regarded,  that  he  was  called 
the  Divine. 

Plau'tus,  M.  Ac'cius.  A  dramatic  poet  born  in 
Umbria.  He  wrote  twenty-five  comedies,  of 
which  only  nineteen  are  extant.  He  died 
about  184  years  before  the  Christian  era. 

Plei'ades.  A  name  given  to  seven  daughters  of 
Atlas  and  Pleione.  They  were  placed  after 
death  in  the  heavens,  and  formed  a  constella- 

Plin'ius,  C.  Sccun  dus,  called  the  Elder,  was  born 
at  Verona,  of  a  noble  family.  He  distin- 
guished himself  in  the  field,  and  was  ap- 
pi  inted  governor  of  Spain.  When  at  Mise- 
num  in  command  of  the  Roman  fleet,  Pliny 
observed  the  appearance  of  a  cloud  of  dust 
and  ashes,  which  was  the  commencement  of 
the  famous  eruption  of  Mount  Vesuvius  which 
overwhelmed  Herculaneum  and  Pompeii.  He 
sailed  for  the  scene  of  the  eruption,  where  he 
was  suffocated  by  the  vapors  emitted.  This 
occurred  in  tlie  seventy-ninth  year  of  the 
Christian  era. 

Plin  ius,  C.  Caecilius  Secun  dus,  surnamed  the 
Younger  Pliny,  was  son  of  L.  Caecilius  by  the 
sister  of  Pliny  the  Elder.     At  the  age  of  nine- 


teen  he  distinguished  himself  at  the  bar. 
When  Trajan  was  invested  with  the  purple, 
Pliny  was  created  consul.  He  died  in  the 
fifty-second  year  of  his  age,  a.d.  113.  Pliny 
had  much  to  do  with  the  persecutions  of  the 
Christians  in  the  early  promulgation  of  the 
Christian  religion.  The  Rev.  James  Copland, 
M.A.,  in  an  admirable  little  work  entitled 
"Reasons  why  we  Believe  the  Bible,"  gives  a 
very  interesting  letter  from  Pliny  to  the  em- 
peror Trajan,  asking  instructions  how  to  deal 
with  the  Christians  when  they  were  cited  to 
appear  before  him. 

Plutar'chus,  the  celebrated  biographer,  was  born 
at  Chseronea,  his  father  being  distinguished 
for  his  learning  and  virtues.  After  traveling 
in  quest  of  knowledge,  he  retired  to  Rome, 
where  he  opened  a  school.  Subsequently  he 
removed  to  Chseronea,  were  he  died  at  an  ad- 
vanced age  about  the  140th  year  of  the  Chris- 
tian era.  His  most  esteemed  work  is  the 
"Lives  of  Illustrious  Men." 

Plu'to,  son  of  Saturn  and  0*ps,  inherited  his 
father's  kingdom  with  his  brothers,  Jupiter 
and  Neptune.  He  received  as  his  portion  the 
kingdom  of  the  infernal  regions,  of  death, 
and  funerals.  He  seized  Proserpine  as  she 
was  gathering  flowers,  and  carrying  her  away 
on  his  chariot,  she  became  his  wife  and  queen 
of  the  infernal  regions. 

Plu'tus,  the  god  of  riches,  was  the  son  of  Jason, 
or  Jasius,  and  Ceres. 


Pol'lio,  C.  Asin  ius.  A  Roman  consul  in  the 
reign  of  Augustus,  who  distinguished  him- 
self equally  by  his  eloquence  and  exploits  in 
war.  He  wrote  a  history  and  some  tragedies, 
and  died  in  his  eightieth  year,  a.d.  4. 

Pollux.  A  son  of  Jupiter  and  Leda,  brother  to 

Polyb  ius.  A  native  of  Megalopolis.  He  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  valor  against  the 
Romans  in  Macedonia.  He  wrote  a  univer- 
sal history  in  Greek,  and  died  about  124  years 


Polydec'tes.  A  son  of  Magnes,  king  of  Se'riphos. 
He  received  with  kindness  Danae  and  her  son 
Perseus,  who  had  been  exposed  on  the  sea. 
Polydectes  was  turned  into  stone  by  being 
shown  Medusa's  head  by  Perseus. 

Polyhymnia.  One  of  the  Muses,  daughter  of 
Jupiter  and  Mnemosyne.  She  presided  over 
singing  and  rhetoric. 

Polyni'ces.  A  sou  of  CEdipus,  king  of  Thebes, 
and  Jocasta.  He  inherited  his  father's  throne 
with  his  brother  Eteocles,  and  it  was  agreed 
that  they  should  reign  a  year  alternately. 
Eteocles  first  ascended  the  throne,  but  re- 
fused to  resign  the  crown.  Polynices  upon 
this  fled  to  Argos,  where  he  married  Argia, 
the  daughter  of  Adrastus,  the  king  of  the 
country,  and  levied  an  army  with  which  he 
marched  on  Thebes.  The  battle  was  decided 
by  a  combat  between  the  brothers,  who  killed 
each  other. 


Polyphe  mus.  A  celebrated  Cyclops,  son  of 
Neptune  and  Thoosa,  the  daughter  of  Phorcys. 
He  is  represented  as  a  monster  with  one  eye 
in  the  middle  of  his  forehead.  Ulysses  was 
his  captive,  but  escaped  by  putting  a  fire- 
brand in  the  monster'::  eye. 

Pomona.  A  nymph  at  Rome,  who  was  supposed 
to  preside  over  gardens  and  to  be  the  goddess 
of  fruit  trees. 

Pompeii  or  Pompei  um.  A  town  of  Campania, 
It  was  partly  destroyed  by  an  earthquake 
A.D.  63,  and  sixteen  years  afterward  it  was 
overwhelmed  by  ashes  and  lava  from  an 
eruption  of  Mount  Vesuvius.  Herculaneum, 
in  its  vicinity,  shared  the  same  fate. 

Pompe  ius,  Cnei  us,  surnamed  ISlagnus  from  his 
exploits,  was  son  of  Pompeius  Strabo  and 
Lucilia.  In  the  contentions  which  existed 
between  INIarius  and  Sjdla  Pompey  linked 
himself  with  the  latter.  Subsequently  he 
united  his  interest  with  that  of  Caesar  and 
Crassus,  thus  forming  the  first  triumvirate. 
A  breach  soon  occurred,  and  at  the  great  bat- 
tle of  Pharsalia.  where  the  forces  of  Caesar 
and  Pompey  met,  the  latter  was  totally  de- 
feated, and  fled  to  Eg3'pt.  where  he  was  as- 
sassinated in  the  fifty-eighth  year  of  his  age, 
B.C.  48.  He  left  two  sons,  Cneius  and  Sextus, 
who  at  their  father's  death  were  masters  of  a 
powerful  army  with  which  they  opposed 
Caesar,  but  were  defeated  at  the  battle  of 
Munda,  where  Cneius  was  slain.     Sextus  es- 


caped,  and  was  put  to  death  by  Antony  about 
thirty-five  years  before  the  Christian  era. 
Por'cia.  A  daughter  of  Cato  of  Utica,  who  mar- 
ried Bibulus,  and  after  his  death  Brutus. 
She  was  distinguished  for  her  prudence  and 
courage.  After  her  husband's  death  she 
killed  herself  by  swallowing  burning  coals. 
She  is  said  to  have  given  herself  a  severe 
wound  to  show  that  she  could  bear  pain. 
Shakespeare  alludes  to  this  (Julius  Caesar, 
act  ii. ,  scene  i) ,  where  he  makes  her  exclaim, 
to  show  her  heroism, 

"  I  have  made  strong-  proof  of  my  constancy. 
Giving  myself  a  voluntary  wound 
Here,  in  the  thigh." 

Porphyr'ius.  A  Platonic  philosopher  of  Tyre. 
He  studied  eloquence  at  Athens  under  Lon- 
ginus,  and  afterward  retired  to  Rome.  His 
most  celebrated  work  was  in  reference  to  the 
Christian  religion.  Porphyry  died  a.d.  304, 
aged  seventy-one  years. 

Porsen  na  or  Per  sena.  A  king  of  Etruria,  who 
declared  war  against  the  Romans  because  they 
refused  to  restore  Tarquin  to  the  throne.  He 
was  prevented  from  entering  the  gates  of 
Rome  by  the  valor  of  P.  Horatius  Codes, 
who  at  the  head  of  a  bridge  kept  back  Por- 
senna's  army,  while  the  bridge  was  being  cut 
down  by  the  Romans  to  prevent  the  entry  of 
their  enemies  into  the  city.  Eventually  Por- 
senna  abandoned  the  cause  of  Tarquin.  Lord 
Macaulay,  in  his  fine  poem  "  Horatius,"  repre- 


sents  two  other  heroes,  "Spurins  Lartius"  and 
"Herminius,"  as  keeping  the  bridge  on  either 
hand  of  Horatius  Codes. 

Praxit'elec.  A  famous  sculptor  of  Greece,  who 
lived  about  324  years  before  the  Christian 
era.  The  most  famous  of  his  works  was  a 
Cupid,  which  he  gave  to  Phryne.  He  exe- 
cuted a  statue  of  Phryne,  and  also  one  of 

Pri'amus.  The  last  king  of  Troy,  was  son  of 
Laomedon,  by  Strymo,  called.  Placia  by  some 
writers.  He  married  Arisba,  whom  he  di- 
vorced in  order  to  marry  Hecuba,  by  whom 
he  had  a  number  of  children,  the  most  cele- 
brated of  whom  were  Hector,  Paris,  Dei- 
phobus,  Helenus,  Laodice,  and  Cassandra. 
After  he  had  reigned  some  tim.e,  Priam  was 
anxious  to  recover  his  sister  Hesione,  who 
had  been  carried  into  Greece  by  Hercules,  and 
to  achieve  this,  he  manned  a  fleet,  the  com- 
mand of  which  he  gave  to  his  son  Paris,  who, 
instead  of  obeying  the  paternal  instructions, 
carried  away  Helen,  the  wife  of  Menelaus, 
king  of  Sparta.  This  caused  the  Trojan  war, 
which  lasted  for  ten  years.  At  the  end  of  the 
war  Priam  was  slain  by  Neoptolemus,  the  son 
of  Achilles. 

Pro'bus,  M.  Aure  lius.  A  native  of  Pannonia. 
His  father  was  a  gardener,  who  became  a 
military  tribune.  His  son  obtained  the  same 
office  on  the  twenty-second  year  of  his  age, 
and  distinguished  himself  so  much  by  hispro- 



bity  and  valor  that  he  was  invested  with  the 
imperial  purple.  He  encouraged  the  arts, 
and  by  his  victories  added  to  the  glory  of  his 
country.  He  was  slain  by  his  soldiers  in  the 
fiftieth  year  of  his  age,  B.C.  282. 

Proco'pius,  born  of  a  noble  family  in  Cilicia,  was 
related  to  the  emperor  Julian.  He  signalized 
himself  under  Julian,  and  afterward  retired 
to  the  Thracian  Chersonesus,  whence  he  made 
his  appearance  at  Constantinople,  and  pro- 
claimed himself  master  of  the  Eastern  Em- 
pire. He  was  defeated  in  Phrygia,  and  be- 
headed A.  D.  366.  There  was  a  famous  Greek 
historian  of  the  same  name,  who  wrote  the 
history  of  the  reign  of  Justinian,  and  who  was 
secretary  to  Belisarius. 

Prometheus.  Ason  of  lapctusand  Clymene.  one 
of  the  Oceanides.  He  ridiculed  the  gods  and 
deceived  Jupiter  himself,  who,  to  punish  him 
and  the  rest  of  mankind,  took  fire  away  from 
the  earth  ;  but  Prometheus  climbed  the  heav- 
ens by  the  assistance  of  Minerva,  and  stole 
fire  from  the  chariot  of  the  sun,  which  he 
brought  down  to  the  earth.  This  provoked 
Jupiter,  and  he  ordered  Prometheus  to  be 
chained  to  a  rock,  where  a  vulture  was  to  feed 
on  his  liver,  which  was  never  exhausted.  He 
was  delivered  from  his  torture  by  Hercules, 
who  killed  the  vulture. 

Proper'tius,  Sex  tus  Aure  lius.  A  Latin  poet 
born  in  Umbria.  He  came  to  Rome,  where 
his  genius  greatly  reconmiended  him  to   the 


great  and  powerful.  His  works,  consist  of 
four  books  of  elegies  which  are  marked  by 
much  al)ility.      He  died  about  nineteen  years 


Proser  pina,  a  daughter  of  Ceres  and  Jupiter, 
called  by  the  Greeks  Persephone.  As  she 
was  gathering  flowers  Pluto  carried  her  off  to 
the  infernal  regions,  where  he  married  her. 
Ceres,  having  learnt  that  her  daughter  had 
been  carried  away  by  Pluto,  demanded  of 
Jupiter  that  Pluto  should  be  punished.  As 
queen  of  hell,  Proserpine  presided  over  the 
death  of  mankind.  She  was  known  by  the 
names  of  Hecate,  Juno  Inferna,  Libitina,  and 
several  others. 

Protag  oras.  A  Greek  philosopher  of  Abdera  in 
Thrace.  He  wrote  a  book  in  which  he  denied 
the  existence  of  a  Supreme  Being,  which  book 
was  publicly  burnt  at  Athens,  and  its  author 
was  banished  from  the  city. 

Pro'tesila'us.  A  king  of  part  of  Thessaly  who 
married  Laodamia,  and  shortly  afterward 
went  to  the  Trojan  war.  He  was  the  first  of 
the  Greeks  who  entered  the  Trojan  domain, 
and  on  that  account,  in  accordance  with  the 
prediction  of  the  oracle,  was  killed  by  his 

Pro'teus.  A  sea  deity,  son  of  Oceanus  and 
Tethys,  or,  according  to  some  writers,  of 
Neptune  and  Phenice.  He  had  received  the 
gift  of  prophecy  from  Neptune,  but  when 
consulted  he  often  refused  to  give   answers, 


and  puzzled  those  who  consulted  him  by  as- 
suming different  shapes. 

Psy'che.  A  nymph  who  married  Cupid.  Venus 
put  her  to  death  because  of  this,  but  Jupiter, 
at  the  request  of  Cupid,  granted  immortality 
to  her. 

Ptolemae'us  First,  called  Ptolemy,  surnamed 
Lagus.  A  king  of  Egypt,  son  of  Arsinoe  and 
Lagus.  He  was  educated  in  the  court  of  the 
king  of  Macedonia,  and  when  Alexander  in- 
vaded Asia  Ptolemy  attended  him.  After 
Alexander's  death  Ptolemy  obtained  the  gov- 
ernment of  Egypt,  where  he  gained  the  esteem 
of  the  people  by  acts  of  kindness.  He  made 
himself  master  of  Phoenicia  and  Syria,  and 
rendered  assistance  to  the  people  of  Rhodes 
against  their  enemies,  for  which  he  received 
the  name  of  Soter.  He  laid  the  foundation  of 
a  library,  which  became  the  most  celebrated 
in  the  world.  He  died  in  his  eighty-fourth 
year,  about  284  years  b.c.  He  was  succeeded 
by  his  son  Ptolemy  Philadelphus,  who  showed 
himself  to  be  a  w^orthy  successor  of  his  father. 
His  palace  was  an  asylum  for  learned  men, 
and  he  greatly  increased  the  library  his  father 
had  founded.  Ptolemy  Third  succeeded  his 
father  Philadelphus  on  the  Egyptian  throne. 
He  conquered  Syria  and  Cilicia,  and  returned 
home  laden  with  spoils.  He  was,  like  his 
predecessors,  a  patron  of  learning  and  the 
arts.  Ptolemy  Fourth,  called  Philopater, 
succeeded    to    the    throne,    his    reign    being 


marked  by  acts  of  cruelty  and  oppression. 
He  died  in  his  thirty-seventh  year,  after  a 
reign  of  seventeen  years,  204  b.c.  Numerous 
members  of  this  celebrated  family  in  succes- 
sion occupied  the  throne,  not,  however,  ap- 
proaching to  the  greatness  of  the  founders  of 
the  family. 

Ptolemae  us.  A  celebrated  geographer  and  astron- 
omer in  the  reign  of  Adrian  and  Antoninus. 
He  was  a  native  of  Alexandria,  or,  as  some 
say,  of  Pelusium.  In  his  system  of  the  world, 
designated  the  Ptolemaic  system,  he  places 
the  earth  in  the  centre  of  the  universe,  which 
"  was  generally  received  as  correct  till  it  was 
confuted  by  Copernicus. 

Public'ola.  A  surname,  signifying  a  friend  of  the 
common  people,  acquired  by  Publius  Valerius. 
He  assisted  Brutus  to  expel  the  Tarquins,  and 
won  the  victory  in  the  battle  in  which  Brutus 
and  the  sons  of  Tarquin  had  fallen.  He  was 
four  times  Consul,  but  died  in  poverty,  and 
was  buried  at  the  public  expense  amidst  gen- 
eral mourning. 

Pyr'rhus.  A  famous  king  of  Epirus,  son  of 
^acides  and  Phthia.  He  wrote  several  books 
on  encampments  and  the  ways  of  training  an 
army.  He  fought  against  the  Romans  with 
much  valor,  and  they  passed  encomiums  on 
his  great  military  skill.  He  was  killed  in  an 
attack  on  Argos,  by  a  tile  thrown  on  his  head 
from  a  housetop. 

Pyr  rhus.     See  Neoptolemus. 


Pythag  oras.  A  celebrated  philosopher  born  at 
Samos.  He  first  made  himself  known  in 
Greece  at  the  Olympic  games,  where,  when 
he  was  eighteen  years  old,  he  obtained  the 
prize  for  wrestling.  He  also  distinguished 
himself  by  his  discoveries  in  geometry,  as- 
tronomy, and  mathematics.  He  was  the  first 
who  supported  the  doctrine  of  metempsycho- 
sis, or  transmigration  of  the  soul  into  different 
bodies.  He  believed  that  the  universe  was 
created  from  a  shapeless  mass  of  passive  mat- 
ter by  the  hands  of  a  powerful  Being,  who  was 
the  mover  and  soul  of  the  world,  and  of  whose 
substance  the  souls  of  mankind  were  a  portion. 
The  time  and  place  of  death  of  this  great  phil- 
osopher are  unknown,  but  some  suppose  that 
he  died  at  Metapontum  about  497  years  b.v. 

Py  then.  A  celebrated  serpent  sprung  from  the 
mud  and  stagnated  waters  which  remained  on 
the  surface  of  the  earth  after  the  deluge  of 
Deucalion.     Apollo  killed  the  monster. 

Quintilia'nus,  Marcus  Fa'bius,  a  celebrated 
rhetorician,  born  in  Spain.  He  opened  a 
school  of  rhetoric  at  Rome,  and  was  the  first 
who  obtained  a  salary  from  the  State  as  a 
public  teacher.     He  died  a.d.  95. 

Quin'tus  Cur  tius  Ru'fus.  A  Latin  historian  sup- 
posed to  have  lived  in  the  reign  of  Ve.spasian. 
He  wrote  a  history  of  the  reign  of  Alexander 
the  Great.  This  woik  is  admired  for  the 
elegance  of  us  diction. 


Regil'lus.  A  small  lake  in  Latium,  famous  as 
being  the  scene  of  a  great  Roman  victory, 
which  forms  the  subject  of  a  fine  poem  by 
Lord  Macaulay,  called  "The  Battle  of  the 
Lake  Regillus,"  included  in  his  "Lays  of  An- 
cient Rome." 

Reg  ulus,  M.  Attil  ius.  A  consul  during  the  first 
Punic  war.  He  reduced  Brundusium,  and  in 
his  second  consulship  he  captured  a  great  por- 
tion of  the  Carthaginian  fleet.  After  further 
successes  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Cartha- 
ginians, who  put  him  to  death  with  refined 

Rhadaman  thus.  A  son  of  Jupiter  and  Europa, 
He  reigned  in  the  Cyclades,  where  his  rule 
was  characterized  by  marked  justice  and  im- 

Romulus.  According  t>)  tradition  the  founder  of 
Rome.  He  was  a  son  of  Mars  and  Ilia,  and 
was  twin  brother  of  Remus.  The  twins  were 
thrown  into  the  Tiber,  but  were  saved  and 
suckled  by  a  she- wolf  till  they  were  found  by 
Faustulus,  a  shepherd,  who  brought  them  up. 
Disputes  arising  between  the  brothers  in  refer- 
ence to  the  building  of  the  city,  Romulus 
caused  Remus  to  he  slain. 

Ros'cius.  A  celebrated  Roman  actor.  He  died 
about  60  years  h.c. 

Ru  bicon.  A  small  river  in  Italy.  By  crossing 
it,  and  thus  transgressing  the  boundaries  of 
his  province,  Cspsar  declared  wai'  against  the 
senate  and  P<jmpey.     "Passing  the  Rubicon" 


has  become  a  proverbial  expression,  indicat- 
ing an  irrevocable  step  taken  in  any  weighty 

Sacra,  Vi'a.  An  important  street  in  Rome, 
where  a  treaty  of  peace  was  made  between 
Romulus  and  Tatius. 

Sal'amis.  An  island  of  Attica  celebrated  for  a 
battle  fought  there  between  the  fleets  of  the 
Greeks  and  the  Persians,  in  which  the  latter 
suffered  defeat. 

Sallus'tius,  Cris'pus.  A  celebrated  Latin  his- 
torian. He  wrote  a  history  of  the  Catilinian 
conspiracy,  and  died  thirty-five  years  before 
the  Christian  era. 

Sanchoni'athon.  A  Phoenician  historian  born  at 
Berytus,  or,  as  some  say,  at  Tyre.  He  lived 
a  few  years  before  the  Trojan  war,  and  wrote 
on  the  antiquities  of  Phoenicia. 

Sa'por.  A  king  of  Persia,  who  succeeded  to  the 
throne  about  the  238th  year  of  the  Christian 
era.  He  wished  to  increase  his  dominions  by 
conquest,  but  was  defeated  by  Odenatus,  who 
defeated  his  army  with  great  slaughter.  He 
was  assassinated  a.d.  273. 

Sa'por.  The  second  king  of  Persia  of  that  name, 
lie  fought  against  the  Romans,  and  obtained 
several  victories  over  them.     Died  a.d.  380. 

Sap  pho,  celebrated  for  her  beauty  and  poetical 
talents,  was  l)orn  at  Lesbos  about  600  years 
before  Christ  She  became  enamored  with 
Phaon,  a   youth  of   Mitylene;  but  he  not  re- 


ciprocatingher  passion,  she  threw  herself  into 
the  sea  from  the  rock  of  Leucadia.  Moore 
alludes  to  her  fatal  leap  in  his  "  Evenings  in 
Greece :" 

"  The  very  spot  where  Sappho  sung 
Her  swan-like  music,  ere  she  sprung 
(Still  holding  in  that  fearful  leap, 
By  her  loved  lyre)  into  the  deep, 
And,  dying,  quenched  the  fatal  fire 
At  once,  of  both  her  heart  and  lyre." 

Sardanapa'lus.  The  last  king  of  Assyria,  cele- 
brated for  his  luxury  and  indolence.  His 
effeminacy  induced  his  subjects  to  conspire 
against  him  with  success,  on  which  he  set  fire 
to  his  palace  and  perished  in  the  flames,  B.C. 
820.  Lord  Byron  has  made  his  history  the 
subject  of  a  tragedy,  in  which  he  introduces 
as  the  heroine  Myrrha,  a  Greek  slave,  who 
sets  fire  to  a  pile  of  inflammable  materials 
which  had  been  raised,  and  perishes  with 
Sardanapalus,  exclaiming  as  she  applies  the 
torch, — 

"Lo  ! 

I've  lit  the  lamp  which  lights  us  to  the  stars.'" 

The  play  of  "Sardanapalus"  is  still  occasion- 
ally produced  on  the  stage. 
Satur'nus.  The  son  of  Coelus,  or  Uranus,  by 
Terra.  It  was  customary  to  offer  human  vic- 
tims on  his  altars  till  this  custom  was  abol- 
ished by  Hercules.  He  is  generally  repre- 
sented as  an  old  man  bent  with  age,  and  hold- 
ing a  scythe  in  his  right  hand. 


Sat'yri.  Demigods  whose  origin  is  unknown. 
They  had  the  feet  and  legs  of  a  goat,  their 
body  bearing  the  human  form. 

Scae'vola,  Mu'tius,  surnamed  Cordus,  was  famous 
for  his  courage.  He  attempted  to  assassinate 
Porsenna,  but  was  seized  ;  and  to  show  his 
fortitude  when  confronted  with  Porsenna,  he 
thrust  his  hand  into  the  fire,  on  which  the 
king  pardoned  him. 

Scip'io.  The  name  of  a  celebrated  family  at 
Rome,  the  most  conspicuous  of  which  was 
Publius  Cornelius,  afterward  called  Afri- 
canus.  He  was  the  son  of  Publius  Scipio  and 
commanded  an  army  against  the  Carthagini- 
ans. After  obtaining  some  victories,  he  en- 
countered Hannibal  at  the  famous  battle  of 
Zama,  in  which  he  obtained  a  decisive  vic- 
tory. He  died  about  184  years  before  Christ, 
in  his  forty  eighth  year. 

Scip'io,  Lucius  Cornelius,  surnamed  Asiaticus, 
accompanied  his  brother  Africanus  in  his  ex- 
pedition in  Africa.  He  was  made  consul 
A.u.c.  562,  and  sent  to  attack  Antiochus,  king 
of  Syria,  whom  he  completely  routed.  He 
was  accused  <;f  receiving  bril)es  of  Antiochus. 
and  was  condemned  to  pay  large  fines  which 
reduced  him  to  poverty. 

Scip  io,  P.  iEmilia'nus.  Called  Africanus  the 
younger.  He  finished  the  war  with  Carthage, 
the  total  submission  of  which  occurred  a. v. 
147.  The  captive  city  was  set  on  fiie,  and 
Scipio  is  said  to  have  wept  bitterly  over  the 


melancholy  scene.  On  his  return  to  Rome  he 
was  appointed  to  conclude  the  war  against 
Numantia,  the  fall  of  which  soon  occurred, 
and  Scipio  had  Numantinus  added  to  his 
name.  He  was  found  dead  in  his  bed  and 
was  presumed  to  have  been  strangled,  b.c. 

Sem  ele.  A  daughter  of  Cadmus,  and  Hermione, 
the  daughter  of  Mars  and  Venus.  She  was  the 
mother  of  Bacchus.  After  death  she  was 
made  immortal  under  the  name  of  Thyone. 

Semir  amis.  A  celebrated  queen  of  Assyria, 
who  married  the  governor  of  Nineveh,  and  at 
his  death  she  became  the  wife  of  king  Xinus. 
She  caused  many  improvements  to  be  effected 
in  her  kingdom,  as  well  as  distinguishing  her- 
self as  a  warrior.  She  is  supposed  to  have 
lived  1965  years  before  the  Christian  era. 

Sen'eca,  L.  Anrice'us,  at  an  early  period  of  his  life, 
was  distinguished  by  his  talents.  He  became 
preceptor  to  Nero,  in  which  capacity  he  gained 
general  approbation.  The  tyrant,  however, 
determined  to  put  him  to  death,  and  he  chose 
to  have  his  veins  opened  in  a  hot  bath,  but 
death  not  ensuing,  he  swallowed  poison,  and 
was  eventually  suffocated  by  the  soldiers  who 
were  in  attendance.  This  occurred  in  his  fifty- 
third  year,  and  in  the  sixty-fifth  of  the  Chris- 
tian era.  His  works,  which  were  numerous, 
were  chiefly  on  moral  subjects. 

Sera  pis.  One  of  the  Egyptian  deities,  supposed 
to  be  the  same  as   Osiris.     He  had   a  mag- 


nificent  temple  at  Memphis,  another  at  Alex- 
andria, and  a  third  at  Canopus. 

Sesos  tris.  A  celebrated  king  of  Egypt,  who 
lived  long  prior  to  the  Trojan  war.  He  was 
ambitious  of  military  fame,  and  achieved 
many  conquests.  On  his  return  from  his  vic- 
tories he  employed  himself  in  encouraging  the 
fine  arts.  He  destroyed  himself  after  a  reign 
of  forty-four  years. 

Seve  rus,  Lucius  Septim'ius.  A  Roman  emperor, 
born  in  Africa,  noticeable  from  his  ambition. 
He  invaded  Britain,  and  built  a  wall  in  the 
north  as  a  check  to  the  incursions  of  the  Cale- 
donians. He  died  at  York  in  the  211th  year 
of  the  Christian  era. 

Sile  nus.  A  demigod,  who  is  represented  gener- 
ally as  a  fat  old  man  riding  on  an  ass,  with 
flowers  crowning  his  head. 

Sil'ius  Ital'icus,  C.  A  Latin  poet  who  retired 
from  the  bar  to  consecrate  his  time  to  study. 
He  imitated  Virgil,  but  with  little  success.  His 
poetry,  however,  is  commended  for  its  purity. 

Simon'ides.  A  celebrated  poet  of  Cos  who  lived 
538  H.  c.  He  wrote  elegies,  epigrams,  and 
dramatic  pieces,  esteemed  for  their  beauty. 

Sirenes.  The  Sirens.  They  lured  to  destruction 
those  who  listened  to  their  songs.  When 
Ulysses  sailed  past  their  island  he  stopped  the 
ears  of  his  companions  with  wax,  and  had 
himself  tied  to  the  mast  of  liis  ship.  Thus  he 
passed  with  safety,  and  the  Sirens,  disap- 
pointed of  their  prey,  drowned  themselves. 


Sisyphus.  Son  of  ^oius  and  Enaretta.  After 
death  he  was  condemned,  in  the  infernal  re- 
gions, to  roll  a  stone  to  the  summit  of  a  hill, 
which  always  rolled  back,  and  rendered  his 
punishment  eternal. 

Soc'rates.  The  most  celebrated  philosopher  of 
antiquity,  born  near  Athens,  whose  virtues 
rendered  his  name  venerated.  His  indepen- 
dence of  spirit  created  for  him  many  enemies, 
and  he  was  accused  of  making  innovations  in 
the  religion  of  the  Greeks.  He  was  con- 
demned to  death  by  drinking  hemlock,  and 
expired  a  few  moments  after  imbibing  the 
poison,  in  his  seventieth  year,  b.c.  400.  His 
wife  was  Xanthippe,  remarkable  for  her 
shrewish  disposition,  for  which  her  name  has 
become  proverbial. 

So'lon,  one  of  the  wise  men  of  Greece,  was  born 
at  Salamis  and  educated  at  Athens.  After 
traveling  over  Greece  he  returned,  and  was 
elected  archon  and  sovereign  legislator,  in 
which  capacity  he  effected  numerous  reforms 
in  the  state,  binding  the  Athenians  by  a  solemn 
oath  to  observe  the  laws  he  enacted  for  one 
hundred  years.  After  this  he  visited  Egypt, 
and  on  returning  to  Athens  after  ten  years' 
absence,  he  found  most  of  his  regulations  dis- 
regarded by  his  countrymen.  On  this  he  re- 
tired to  Cyprus,  where  he  died  in  his  eightieth 
year,  558  years  before  the  Christian  era. 

Som'nus,  son  of  Nox  and  Erebus,  was  one  of  the 
infernal  deities,  and  presided  over  sleep. 


Soph  ocles.  A  celebrated  tragic  poet  of  Athens. 
He  was  distinguished  also  as  a  statesman, 
and  exercised  the  office  of  archon  with  credit 
and  honor.  He  wrote  for  the  stage,  and  ob- 
tained the  poetical  prize  on  twenty  different 
occasions.  He  was  the  rival  of  Euripides  for 
public  applause,  each  having  his  admirers. 
He  died  at  the  age  of  ninety-one,  406  years 
before  Christ. 

Sophonis  ba.  A  daughter  of  Hasdrubal,  the 
Carthaginian,  celebrated  for  her  beauty.  She 
married  Syphax,  prince  of  Numidia,  and  when 
he  was  conquered  by  the  Romans  she  became 
a  captive  to  their  ally,  the  Numidian  general 
Masinissa,  whom  she  married.  This  dis- 
pleased the  Romans,  and  Scipio  ordered 
Masinissa  to  separate  from  Sophonisba,  and 
she,  urged  to  this  by  Masinissa,  took  poison, 
about  203  years  before  Christ. 

Soz'omen.  A  historian  who  died  450  a.d.  He 
wrote  an  important  work  on  ecclestiastical 

Sphinx.  A  monster,  having  the  head  and  breasts 
of  a  woman,  the  body  of  a  dog,  the  tail  of  a 
serpent,  the  wings  of  a  bird,  and  the  paws  of 
a  lion.  The  Sphinx  was  sent  into  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Thebes  by  Juno,  where  she  pro- 
pounded enigmas,  devouring  those  who  were 
unable  to  solve  them.  One  of  the  riddles  pro- 
posed was— What  animal  walked  on  four  legs 
in  the  morning,  two  at  noon,  and  three  in  the 
evening?     CEdipus  solved   it,    giving   as   the 


meaning— x\  man.  who  when  an  infant  crav.-led 
on  his  hands  and  feet,  walking  erect  in  man 
hood,  and  in   the  evening  of  life  supporting 
himself  with  a  stick.     On  hearing  the  solntion 
the  Sphinx  destroyed  herself. 
Stagi  ra,    A  town  on   the   borders  of  Macedonia, 
where  Aristotle  was  born  ;  hence  he  is  called 
the  Stagirite. 
Sta'tius,  P.  Papin  ius.     A   poet,    born  at  Naples 
in  the  reign  of  Domitian.      He  was  the  author 
of  two   epic   poems,    the   Thebais   in    twelve 
books,  and  the  Achilleis  in  two  books. 
Stsii'tor.     One   of  the    Greeks   who   went  to  the 
Trojan  war.     He  was  noted   for  the  loudness 
of   his  voice,    and  from   him  the  term  "sten- 
torian" has  become  proverbial. 
Sto'ici.     A  celebrated  sect  of  philosophers  founded 
by  Zeno.      They  preferred  virtue  to  all  other 
things,  and  regarded  everything  opposed  to  it 
as  an  evil. 
Stra  bo.       A     celebrated     geographer,     born     at 
Amasia,   on  the  borders  of  Cappadocia.     He 
flourished  in  the  age  of  Augustus.     His  work 
on  geography  consists  of  seventeen  books,  and 
is  admired  for  its  purity  of  diction. 
Styx.     A  celebrated  river  of  the  infernal  regions: 
The  gods  held  it  in  such  veneration  that  they 
always  swore  by  it,  the  oath  being  inviolable. 
Suetonius,  C.   Tranquillus.     A  Latin    historian 
who  became  secretary  to  Adrian.       His  best 
known  work  is  his  "Lives  of  the  Caesars." 
Sulla,     See  Sylla. 


Sybaris.  A  town  on  the  ba}-  of  Tarentum.  Its 
inhabitants  were  distinguished  by  their  love 
of  ease  and  pleasure,  hence  the  term  "Sybar- 

Syl'la  (or  Sulla) ,  L.  Corne  lius.  A  celebrated 
Roman,  of  a  noble  family,  who  rendered  him- 
self conspicuous  in  military  affairs,  and  be- 
came antagonistic  to  Marius.  In  the  zenith  of 
his  power  he  was  guilty  of  the  greatest  cruelty. 
Ilis  character  is  that  of  an  ambitious,  tyran- 
nical, and  resolute  commander.  He  died 
about  seventy  years  before  Christ,  aged  sixty, 

Sy'phax.  A  king  of  the  Masa^syllii  in  Numidia, 
who  married  Sophonisba,  the  daughter  of 
Hasdrubal.  He  joined  the  Carthaginians 
against  the  Romans,  and  was  taken  by  Scipio 
as  a  prisoner  to  Rome,  where  he  died  in  prison. 

Tac'itus,  C.  Cornelius.  A  celebrated  Latin  his- 
torian, born  in  the  reign  of  Nero.  Of  all  his 
works  the  "Annals"  is  the  most  extensive  and 
complete.  His  style  is  marked  by  force,  pre- 
cision, and  dignity,  and  his  Latin  is  remark- 
able for  being  pure  and  classical. 

Tac'itus,  M.  Claudius.  A  Roman,  elected  em- 
peror by  the  Senate  when  he  was  seventy  years 
of  age.  He  displayed  military  vigor,  and  as 
a  ruler  was  a  pattern  of  economy  and  modera 
tion.  He  died  in  the  276th  year  of  the  Chris- 
tian era. 

Tantalus.  A  king  of  Lydia.  father  of  Niobe  and 
Pelops.      He  is  represented  by  the  poets  as  be- 

ct,assu:al  dicttoxarv  T93 

ing.  in  the  infernal  regions,  placed  in  a  pool 
of  water,  which  receded  from  him  whenever  he 
attempted  to  drink,  thus  causing  him  to  suffer 
perpetual  thirst ;  hence  the  origin  of  the  term 

Tarquin'ius  Pris  cus,  the  fifth  king  of  Rome,  was 
son  of  Demaratus  a  native  of  Greece.  He 
exhibited  military  talents  in  the  victories  he 
gained  over  the  Sabines.  During  peace  he 
devoted  attention  to  the  improvement  of  the 
capital.  He  was  assassinated  in  his  eightieth 
year,  578  years  b.c. 

Tarquin'ius  Super  bus.  He  ascended  the  throne 
of  Rome  after  Servius  Tullius,  whom,  he  mur- 
dered, and  married  his  daughter  Tullia.  His 
reign  was  characterized  by  tyranny,  and 
eventually  he  was  expelled  from  Rome ;  sur- 
viving his  disgrace  for  fourteen  years,  and 
dying  in  his  ninetieth  year. 

Tartarus.  One  of  the  regions  of  hell,  where,  ac- 
cording to  Virgil,  the  souls  of  those  who  were 
exceptionally  depraved  were  punished. 

Telem'achus.  Son  of  Penelope  and  Ulysses.  At 
the  end  of  the  Trojan  war  he  went  in  search 
of  his  father,  whom,  with  the  aid  of  Minerva, 
he  found.  Aided  by  Ulysses  he  delivered  his 
mother  from  the  suitors  that  beset  her. 

Tem'pe.  A  valley  in  Thessaly  through  which  th^ 
river  Peneus  flews  into  the  ^gean.  It  is  de- 
scribed  by  the  poets  as  one  of  the  most  de- 
lightful places  in  the  world. 

Terentius,  Pub'lius  (Terence),  A  native  of 


Africa,  celebrated  for  the  comedies  he  wrote. 
He  was  twenty-five  years  old  when  his  first 
play  was  produced  on  the  Roman  stage.  Ter- 
ence is  admired  for  the  purity  of  his  language 
and  the  elegance  of  his  diction.  He  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  drowned  in  a  storm  about 
159  B.C. 

Te'reus.  A  king  of  Thrace  who  married  Procne, 
daughter  of  Pandion,  king  of  Athens.  He 
aided  Pandion  in  a  war  against  Megara. 

Terpsichore.  One  of  the  Muses,  daughter  of 
Jupiter  and  Mnemosyne.  She  presided  over 

TertuUia'nus,  J.  Septim  ius  Flor'ens.  A  cele- 
brated Christian  writer  of  Carthage  who  lived 
A.D.  196.  He  was  originally  a  pagan,  but  em- 
braced Christianity,  of  which  faith  he  became 
an  able  advocate. 

Tha'is.  A  celebrated  woman  of  Athens,  who  ac- 
companied Alexander  the  Great  in  his  Asiatic 
conquests.  She  is  alluded  to  by  Dryden  in 
his  famous  ode,  "Alexander's  Feast :" 

"  The  lovely  Thais  by  his  side 
Sate  like  a  blooming  Eastern  bride 
In  flower  of  youth  and  beauty's  pride." 

Tha'les.  One  of  the  seven  wise  men  of  Greece, 
l)orn  at  Miletus  in  Ionia.  His  discoveries  in 
astronomy  were  great,  and  he  was  the  first  who 
calculated  with  accuracy  a  solar  eclipse.  He 
died  about  548  years  before  the  Christian  era. 

Thali'a.  One  of  the  Muses.  She  presided  over 
festivals  and  comic  poetry. 


Themis  tocles.  A  celebrated  general  born  at 
Athens.  When  Xerxes  invaded  Greece, 
Themistocles  was  entrusted  with  the  care  of 
the  fleet,  and  at  the  famous  battle  of  Salamis, 
fought  B.C.  4S0,  the  Greeks,  instigated  to  fight 
by  Themistocles,  obtained  a  complete  victory 
over  the  formidable  navy  of  Xerxes.  He  died 
in  the  sixty-fifth  year  of  his  age,  having,  as 
some  writers  affirm ,  poisoned  himself  by  drink- 
ing bull's  blood. 

Theoc'ritus.  A  Greek  poet  who  lived  at  Syracuse 
in  Sicily  282  b.c.  He  distinguished  himself 
by  his  poetical  compositions,  of  which  some 
are  extant. 

Theodo  sius,  Fla'vius.  A  Roman  emperor  sur- 
naraed  Magnus  from  the  greatness  of  his 
exploits.  The  first  years  of  his  reign  were 
marked  by  conquests  over  the  Barbarians. 
In  his  private  character  Theodosius  was  an 
example  of  temperance.  He  died  in  his  six- 
tieth year,  a.d.  395,  after  a  reign  of  sixteen 

Theodosius  Second  became  emperor  of  the  West- 
ern Roman  empire  at  an  early  age.  His  ter- 
ritories were  invaded  by  the  Persians,  but  on 
his  appearance  at  the  head  of  a  large  force 
they  fled,  losing  a  great  number  of  their  army 
in  t"he  Euphrates.  Theodosius  was  a  warm 
advocate  of  the  Christian  religion.  He  died 
aged  forty-nine,  a.d.  450. 

Theophras'tus.  A  native  of  Lesbos.  Diogenes 
enumerates  the  titles  of  more  than  200  treat- 


ises  which  he  wrote.  He  died  in  his  107th 
year,  b.c.  288. 
Thermopylae.  A  narrow  pass  leading  from 
Thessaly  into  Locris  and  Phocis,  celebrated 
for  a  battle  fought  there,  b.c.  480,  between 
Xerxes  and  the  Greeks,  in  which  three  hun- 
dred Spartans,  commanded  by  Leonidas,  re- 
sisted for  three  successive  days  an  enormous 
Persian  arm^^  Lord  Byron  ("  Childe  Harold, " 
canto  ii.),  in  an  apostrophe  to  Greece,  thus 
refers  to  the  famous  conflict : 

"Who  now  shall  lead  thy  scatter'd  children  forth, 
And  long-accustom'd  bondage  uncreate? 
Not  such  thy  sons  who  whilome  did  await, 
The  hopeless  warriors  of  a  willing  doom, 
In  bleak  Thermopylae's  sepulchi'al  strait. 
Oil !  who  that  gallant  spirit  shall  resume, 
Leap  from  Eurotas'  banks,  and  call  thee  from  the  tomb  ?" 

Thersi  tes.  A  deformed  Greek,  in  the  Trojan 
war,  who  indulged  in  ridicule  against  Ulysses 
and  others.  Achilles  killed  him  because  he 
laughed  at  his  grief  for  the  death  of  Penthe- 
silea.  Shakespeare,  who  introduces  Thersites 
in  his  play  of  "Troilus  and  Cressida,"  de- 
scribes him  as  "a  deformed  and  scurrilous 
Grecian.  " 

Theseus,  king  of  Athens  and  son  of  -^geus  by 
^thra,  was  one  of  the  most  celebrated  heroes 
of  antiquity.  He  caught  the  bull  of  Marathon 
and  sacrificed  it  to  Minerva,  After  this  he 
went  to  Crete  amongst  the  seven  youths  sent 
yearly  by  the  Athenians  to  be  devoured  by  the 


Minotaur,  and  by  the  aid  of  Ariadne  he  slew 
the  monster.  He  ascended  his  father's  throne 
15. c.  1235.  Pirithous,  king  of  the  Lapithas,  in- 
vaded his  territories,  but  the  two  became  firm 
friends.  They  descended  into  the  infernal  re- 
gions to  carry  off  Proserpine,  but  their  inten- 
tions were  frustrated  by  Pluto.  After  re- 
maining for  some  time  in  the  infernal  regions, 
Theseus  returned  to  his  kingdom  to  find  the 
throne  filled  by  an  usurper,  whom  he  vainly 
tried  to  eject.  He  retired  to  Scyros,  where  he 
was  killed  by  a  fall  from  a  precipice. 

Thes'pis.  A  Greek  poet  of  Attica,  supposed  to 
be  the  inventor  of  tragedy,  b.c.  536.  He  went 
from  place  to  place  upon  a  cart,  on  which  he 
gave  performances.  Hence  the  term  "Thes- 
pians," as  applied  to  wandering  actors. 

The  lis.  A  sea  deity,  daughter  of  Nereus  and 
Doris.  She  married  Peleus,  their  son  being- 
Achilles,  whom  she  plunged  into  the  Styx, 
thus  rendering  him  invulnerable  in  every  part 
of  his  body  except  the  heel  by  which  she  held 

This'be.  A  beautiful  girl  of  Babylon,  beloved  by 

Thrasybu  lus.  A  famous  general  of  Athens,  who, 
with  the  help  of  a  few  associates,  expelled  the 
Thirty  Tyrants,  b.c.  401  -  He  was  sent  with  a 
powerful  fleet  to  recover  the  Athenian  power 
on  the  coast  of  Asia,  and  after  gaining  many 
advantages  was  killed  by  the  people  of  A'=.- 


Thucyd  ides.  A  celebrated  Greek  historian  born 
at  Athens.  He  wrote  a  history  of  the  events 
connected  with  the  Peloponnesian  war.  He 
died  at  Athens  in  his  eightieth  year,  b.c.  391. 

Tibe  rius,  Clau  dius  Ne  ro.  A  Roman  emperor 
descended  from  the  Claudii.  In  his  early 
years  he  entertained  the  people  with  magnifi- 
cent shows  and  gladiatorial  exhibitions,  which 
made  him  popular.  At  a  later  period  of  his 
life  he  retired  to  the  island  of  Capreas,  where 
he  indulged  in  vice  and  debauchery.  He  died- 
aged  seventy-eight,  after  a  reign  of  twenty- 
two  years. 

Tibullus,  Au'lus  Al  bias.     A  Roman  knight  cele 
brated    for    his   poetical    compositions.     His 
favorite  occupation  was  writing  love-poems. 
Four  books  of  elegies  are  all  that  remain  of  his 

Time  leon.  A  celebrated  Corinthian,  son  of 
Timodemus  and  Demariste.  When  the  Syra- 
cusans,  oppressed  with  the  tyranny  of  Diony- 
sius  the  Younger,  solicited  aid  from  the  Cor- 
inthians, Timoleon  sailed  for  Syracuse  with  a 
small  fleet.  He  was  successful  in  the  ex- 
pedition, and  Dionysius  gave  himself  up  as  a 
prisoner,  Timoleon  died  at  Syracuse,  amidst 
universal  regret. 

Ti'mon.  A  native  of  Athens,  called  the  Misan- 
thrope from  his  aversion  to  mankind.  Ho  is 
the  hero  of  Shakespeare's  play  of  "Timon  of 
Athens,"  in  wliich  his  churlish  character  is 
powerfully  delineated. 


Timo  theus.  A  famous  musician  in  the  time  of 
Alexander  the  Great.  Dryden  names  him  in 
his  well-known  ode," Alexander's  Feast:" 

"  Timotheus,  placed  on  high 
Amid  the  Uineful  quire, 
With  flying  fingjrs  touched  the  lyre; 
The  trembling  notes  ascend  the  sky, 
And  heavenly  ;oys  inspire." 

Tire'sias.  A  celebrated  prophet  of  Thebes.  Juno 
deprived  him  of  sight,  and,  to  recompense 
him  for  the  loss,  Jr.piter  bestowed  on  him  the 
gift  of  prophecy. 

Tisiphone.  One  of  the  Furies,  daughter  of  Xox 
and  Acheron. 

Tita  nes.  The  Titans.  A  name  given  to  the 
gigantic  sons  A  Coelus  and  Terra.  The  most 
conspicuous  of  them  are  Saturn,  Hyperion, 
Oceanus,  lapetus,  Cottus,  and  Briareus. 

Titus  Vespasia'nus.  Son  of  Vespasian  and 
Flavia  Domitilla,  known  by  his  valor,  par- 
ticularly at  the  siege  of  Jerusalem.  He  had 
been  distinguished  for  profligacy,  but  on  as- 
suming the  purple,  he  became  a  model  of 
virtue.  His  death,  which  occasioned  great 
lamentations,  occurred  a.  d.  81,  in  the  forty- 
first  year  of  his  age. 

Traja'nus,  M.  Ul  pius  Crini  tus.  A  Roman  em- 
peror born  at  Ithaca.  His  services  to  the  em- 
pire recommended  him  to  the  notice  of  the 
emperor  Nerva,  who  adopted  him  as  his  son, 
and  invested  him  with  the  purple.  The  ac- 
tions of   Trajan  were  those  of   a  benevolent 


prince.  He  died  in  Cilicia,  in  August  a.d. 
117,  in  his  sixty-fourth  year,  and  his  ashes 
were  taken  to  Rome  and  deposited  under  a 
stately  column  which  he  had  erected. 

Tribu  ni  Pie  bis.  Magistrates  at  Rome  created  in 
the  year  u.c.  261  The  office  of  Tribune  to 
the  people  was  o..e  of  the  first  steps  which 
led  to  more  honorable  employments. 

Triptolemus.  Son  of  Oceanus  and  Terra,  or,  ac- 
cording to  some  authorities,  son  of  Celeus, 
king  of  Attica,  and  Neaera.  He  was  in  his 
youth  cured  of  a  severe  illness  by  Ceres,  with 
whom  he  became  a  great  favorite.  She 
taught  him  agriculture,  and  gave  him  her 
chariot  drawn  by  dragons,  in  which  he  trav- 
eled over  the  earth,  distributing  corn  to  the 

Tri  ton.  A  sea  deity,  son  of  Neptune  and  Am- 
phitrite.  He  was  very  powerful,  and  could 
calm  the  sea  and  abate  storms  at  his  pleasure. 

Triumviri.  Three  magistrates  appointed  to  gov- 
ern the  Roman  state  with  absolute  power. 

Tul'lus  Hostil  ius  succeeded  Numa  as  king  of 
Rome.  He  was  of  a  warlike  disposition,  and 
distinguished  himself  by  his  expedition 
against  the  people  of  Alba,  whom  he  con- 

TyphcEus,  or  Ty  phon.  A  famous  giant,  son  of 
Tartarus  and  Terra,  who  had  a  hundred 
heads.  He  made  war  against  the  gods,  and 
was  put  to  Might  by  the  thunderbolts  of  Jupiter, 
■\vho  crushed  him  under  Mount  ^tna. 


Tyrtae'us.  A  Greek  elegiac  poet  born  in  Attica. 
Of  his  compositions  none  are  extant  except  a 
few  fragments. 

Ulys  ses.  The  famous  king  of  Ithaca,  son  of  An- 
ticlea  and  Laertes  (or,  ajcording  tc  some,  of 
Sisyphus) .  He  married  Penelope,  daughter 
of  Icarius,  on  which  his  father  resigned  to 
him  the  crown.  He  went  to  the  Trojan  war, 
where  he  was  esteemed  f c  r  his  sagacity.  On 
the  conclusion  of  the  wr.r  he  embarked  for 
Greece,  but  was  exposed  to  numerous  mis- 
fortunes on  his  journey.  In  his  wanderings, 
he,  with  some  of  his  companions,  was  seized 
by  the  Cyclops,  Polyphemus,  from  whom  he 
made  his  escape.  Afterward  h:  was  thrown 
on  the  island  of  ^ea,  where  he  was  exposed 
to  the  wiles  of  the  enchantress  Circe.  Eventu- 
ally he  was  restored  to  hio  own  country,  after 
an  absence  of  twenty  years.  The  adventures 
of  Ulysses  on  his  return  from  the  Trojan  war 
form  the  subject  of  Homer's  Odyssey. 
Urania.  One  of  the  Muses,  daughter  of  Jupiter 
and  Mnemosyne.  She  presided  over  as- 

Valentinia'nus  the  First.  Son  of  Gratian,  raised 
to  the  throne  by  his  merit  and  valor.  He 
obtained  victories  over  the  Barbarians  in  Gaul 
and  in  Africa,  and  punished  the  Onadi  with 
severity.  He  broke  a  blood-vessel  and  died, 
A.D,    375.      Immediately  after  his  death,  his 


son,  Valentinian  the  Second,  was  proclaimed 
emperor.  He  was  robbed  of  his  throne  by 
Maximus,  but  regained  it  by  the  aid  of  Theo- 
dosius,  emperor  of  the  East.  He  was  strangled 
by  one  of  his  officers.  He  was  remarkable  for 
benevolence  and  clemency.  The  third  Valen- 
tinian was  made  emperor  in  his  youth,  and  on 
coming  to  maturer  age  he  disgraced  himself 
by  violence  and  oppression .  He  was  murdered 
A.D.  454. 

Valeria  nus,  Pub  lius  Licin  ius.  A  celebrated 
Roman  emperor,  who,  on  ascending  the 
throne,  lost  the  virtues  he  had  previously  pos- 
sessed. He  made  his  son  Gallienus  his  col- 
league in  the  empire.  He  made  war  against 
the  Goths  and  Scythians.  He  was  defeated 
in  battle  and  made  prisoner  by  Sapor,  king 
of  Persia,  who  put  him  to  death  by  torture. 

Var'ro.  A  Latin  author,  celebrated  for  his  great 
learning.  He  wrote  no  less  than  five  hundred 
volumes,  but  all  his  works  are  lost  except  a 
treatise  De  Re  Rustica,  and  another  De  Lin- 
gua Latina.  He  died  u.c.  28,  in  his  eighty- 
eighth  year. 

Venus.  One  of  the  most  celebrated  deities  of  the 
ancients;  the  goddess  of  beauty,  and  mother 
of  love.  She  sprang  from  the  foam  of  the  sea, 
and  was  carried  to  heaven,  where  all  the  gods 
admired  her  beauty.  Jupiter  gave  her  in  mar- 
riage to  Vulcan,  but  she  intrigued  with  some 
of  the  gods,  and  notal^ly  with  Mars,  their  ofif 
spring  );eing  Hermione,  Cupid,  and  Anteros. 


She  became  enamored  of  Adoais,  which 
caused  her  to  abandon  Olympus.  Her  con- 
test for  the  golden  apple,  which  she  gained 
against  her  opponents  Juno  and  Minerva,  is  a 
prominent  episode  in  mythology.  She  had 
numerous  names  applied  to  her,  conspicuous 
amongst  which  may  be  named  Anadyomene, 
under  which  cognomen  she  is  distinguished  by 
the  picture,  representing  her  as  rising  from 
the  ocean,  by  Apelles.  She  was  known  under 
the  Grecian  name  of  Aphrodite. 

Vespasia  nus,  Titus  Flavius.  A  Roman  emperor 
of  obscure  descent.  He  began  the  siege  of 
Jerusalem,  which  was  continued  by  his  son 
Titus.  He  died  a.d.  79,  in  his  seventieth 

Ves  ta.  A  goddess,  daughter  of  Rhea  and  Saturn. 
The  Palladium,  a  celebrated  statue  of  Pallas, 
was  supposed  to  be  preserved  within  her 
sanctuary,  where  a  fire  was  kept  continually 

Vesta  les.  The  Vestals,  priestesses  consecrated  to 
the  service  of  Vesta.  They  were  required  to 
be  of  good  families  and  free  from  blemish  and 
deformity.  One  of  their  chief  duties  was  to 
see  that  the  sacred  fire  of  Vesta  was  not  ex- 

Virgilius,  Pub  lius  Ma  ro,  called  the  prince  of  the 
Latin  poets,  was  born  at  Andes,  near  Mantua, 
about  seventy  years  before  Christ.  He  went 
to  Rome,  where  he  formed  an  acquaintance 
with  Maecenas,  and  recommended  himself  to 


Augustus.  His  Bucolics  were  written  in  about 
three  years,  and  subsequently  he  commenced 
the  Georgics,  which  is  considered  one  of  the 
most  perfect  of  all  Latin  compositions.  The 
^^neid  is  supposed  to  have  been  undertaken  at 
the  request  of  Augustus.  Virgil  died  in  his 
fifty- first  year  b.c.  ig. 

Virginia.  Daughter  of  the  centurion  L.  Vir- 
ginius.  She  was  slain  by  her  father  to  save 
her  from  the  violence  of  the  decemvir,  Appius 

Virgin'ius.  A  valiant  Roman  father  of  Virginia. 
(See  Virginia.)  The  story  of  Virginius  and 
his  ill-fated  daughter  is  the  subject  of  the 
well-known  tragedy  of  "Virginius,"  one  of 
the  early  productions  of  J.  Sheridan  Knowles. 
It  is  rarely  performed  in  the  present  day. 

Vulca'nus.  The  god  who  presided  over  fire,  and 
who  was  the  patron  of  those  who  worked  in 
iron.  According  to  Homer,  he  was  the  son 
of  Jupiter  and  Juno,  and  was  so  deformed 
that  at  his  birth  his  mother  threw  him  into 
the  sea,  where  he  remained  nine  years;  but 
other  writers  differ  from  thi.i  opinion.  He 
married  Venus  at  the  instigation  of  Jupiter. 
He  is  known  by  the  name  of  Mulciber.  The 
Cyclopes  were  his  attendants,  and  with  them 
he  forged  the  thunderbolts  of  Jupiter. 

Xanthippe  or  Xantip  pe.  'i'he  wife  of  Socrates, 
remarkable  for  her  ill  humor  and  fretful  dis- 
position.    She  was  a  constant  torment  to  her 


husband,  and  on  one  occasion,  after  bitterly 
reviling  him,  she  emptied  a  vessel  of  dirty 
water  on  him,  on  which  the  philosopher  coolly 
remarked,  "After  thunder  rain  generally 
Xenoc'rates.  An  ancient  philosopher  born  at 
('alcedonia,  and  educated  in  the  school  of 
Plato,  whose  friendship  he  gained.     Died  B.C. 


Xen'ophon.  A  celebrated  Athenian,  son  of 
Gryllus,  famous  as  a  general,  philosopher, 
and  historian.  He  joined  Cyrus  the  Younger 
in  an  expedition  against  Artaxerxes,  king  of 
Persia,  and  after  the  decisive  battle  of  Cunaxa, 
in  which  Cyrus  was  defeated  and  killed,  the 
skill  and  bravery  of  Xenophon  became  con- 
spicuous. He  had  to  direct  an  army  of  ten 
thousand  Greeks,  who  were  now  more  than 
six  hundred  leagues  from  home,  and  in  a 
country  surrounded  by  an  active  enemy.  He 
rose  superior  to  all  difficulties  till  the  cele- 
brated "Retreat  of  the  Ten  Thousand"  was 
effected  ;  the  Greeks  returning  home  after  a 
march  of  two  hundred  and  fifteen  days. 
Xenophon  employed  his  pen  in  describing  the 
expedition  of  Cyrus,  in  his  work  the  "Ana- 
basis." He  also  wrote  the  "Cyropaedia." 
"Memorabilia."  "Hellenica,"  etc.  He  died 
at  Corinth  in  his  ninetieth  year,  about  360 
years  before  the  Christian  era. 

Xer'xes  succeeded  his  father  Darius  on  the  throne 
of  Persia.     He   entered  Greece  with   an  im- 


mense  Army,  which  was.  cliecked  at  Ther- 
mopylas  by  the  valor  of  three  hundred  Spar- 
tans under  king  Leonidas,  who  for  three 
successive  days  successfully  opposed  the 
enormous  forces  of  Xerxes,  and  were  at  last 
slaughtered.  From  this  period  the  fortunes 
of  Xerxes  waned.  His  fleet  being  defeated 
at  Salamis,  and  mortified  with  ill-success,  he 
hastened  to  Persia,  where  he  gave  himself  up 
to  debauchery,  and  was  murdered  in  the 
twenty-first  year  of  his  reign,  about  464  years 
before  the  Christian  era. 

Za  ma.  A  town  of  Numidia,  celebrated  as  the 
scene  of  the  victory  of  Scipio  over  Hannibal, 
K.c.  202. 

Ze'no,  a  celebrated  philosopher,  the  founder  of 
the  sect  of  Stoics,  was  born  at  Citium  in 
Cyprus.  He  opened  a  school  in  Athens,  and 
soon  became  noticed  by  the  great  and  learned. 
His  life  was  devoted  to  sobriety  and  modera- 
tion. He  died  at  the  age  of  ninety-eight, 

Ze'no.  A  philosopher  of  Elea  or  Velia,  in  Italy. 
He  was  the  disciple,  or,  according  to  some, 
the  adopted  son  of  Parmenides.  Being  tor- 
tured to  cause  him  to  reveal  his  confederates 
in  a  plot  he  had  engaged  in,  he  bit  off  his 
tongue  that  he  might  not  betray  his  friends. 

Zeno  bia.  A  celebrated  princess  of  Palmyra,  the 
wife  of  Odenatus.  After  her  husband's  death, 
the  Roman   emperor  Aurelian  declared  war 


She  took  the  field  ^vith  seven 
hundred  thousand  men,  and  though  at  first 
successful,  she  was  eventually  conquered. 
Aurelian.  when  she  became  his  prisoner, 
treated  her  with  great  humanity  and  con- 
sideration. She  was  admired  for  her  literary 
talents  as  well  as  her  military  abilities. 

Zeux'is.  A  celebrated  painter  born  at  Heraclea. 
He  flourished  46S  years  before  the  Christian 
era.  He  painted  some  grapes  so  naturally 
that  the  birds  came  to  peck  them  on  the  can- 
vas;  but  he  was  disgusted  with  the  picture, 
because  the  man  painted  as  carrying  the 
grapes  was  not  natural  enough  to  frighten  the 

Zo  ilus.  A  sophist  and  grammarian  of  Am- 
phipolis,  B.C.  259.  He  became  known  by  his 
severe  criticisms  on  the  works  of  Isocratesand 

Zoroaster.  A  king  of  Bactria,  supposed  to  have 
lived  in  the  age  of  Ninus,  king  of  Assyria, 
.some  time  before  the  Trojan  war.  He  ren- 
dered himself  known  by  his  deep  researches 
in  philosophy.  He  admitted  no  visible  object 
of  devotion  except  fire,  which  he  considered 
the  proper  emblem  of  a  Supreme  Being.  He 
was  respected  by  his  subjects  and  contem- 
poraries for  his  abilities  as  a  monarch,  a  law- 
giver, and  a  philosopher,  and.  though  many  of 
his  doctrines  may  be  deemed  puerile,  he  had 
many  disciples.  The  religion  of  the  Parsees 
of  the  present  day  was  founded  by  Zoroaster. 

2o8  cF.AssirAi.    ivrrioxARV 

Zos  imus.  A  Greek  historian,  ^  bo  lived  about 
the  year  410  of  the  Christian  era.  He  wrote 
a  history  of  some  of  the  Roman  emperors, 
which  is  characterized  by  graceful  di  tion,  but 
he  indulges  in  malevolent  and  vicuperativo 
attacks  on  the  Christians  in  his  History  of 

Zos'teria.  A  surname  of  Minerva.  She  had  two 
statues  under  that  name  in  the  city  of  Thebes, 
in  Boeotia.  The  word  signified  girt,  or  armed 
for  battle,  words  synonymous  among  the  an- 


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The  average  person  dislikes  to  look  up  a  mytho- 
logical subject  because  of  the  time  occupied.  This 
book  remedies  that  difficult}^  because  in  it  can  be 
found  at  a  glance  just  what  is  wanted.  It  is  compre- 
hensive, convenient,  condensed,  and  the  information 
is  presented  in  such  an  interesting  manner  as  when 
once  read  to  be  always  remembered.  A  distinctive 
feature  of  the  book  is  the  pronunciation  of  the 
proper  names,  something  found  in  few  other  works. 


By  John  H.  Bechtei 

Who  does  not  make  them  ?  Tlie  best  of  us  do.  Why 
aot  avoid  them  ?  Any  one  inspired  with  the  spirit 
of  self-improvement  can  readily  do  so.  No  neces- 
sity for  studying  rules  of  grammar  or  rhetoric  when 
this  book  can  be  had.  It  teaches  both  without  the 
study  of  either.  It  is  a  counsellor,  a  critic,  a  com- 
panion, and  a  guide,  and  is  written  in  a  most 
entertaining  and  chatty  style. 


By  John  H.  Bechtel 

What  is  more  disagreeable  than  a  faulty  pronuncia- 
tion ?  No  other  defect  so  clearly  shows  a  lack  of 
culture.  This  book  contains  over  5,000  words  on 
which  most  of  us  are  apt  to  trip.  They  are  here 
pronounced  in  the  clearest  and  simplest  manner, 
and  according  to  the  best  authority.  It  is  more 
readily  consulted  than  a  dictionary,  and  is  just  as 


By  John  H.  Bechtel 

Any  one  with  the  least  desire  to  add  to  his  vocabu* 
lary  or  to  improve  his  choice  of  words  should  have 
a  copy  of  this  book.  It  is  designed  mainly  to  meet 
the  wants  of  busy  merchants  or  lawyers,  thoughtful 
clergymen  or  teachers,  and  wide-awake  school-boys 
or  girls  who  are  ambitious  to  express  the  thouulits 
of  the  mind  in  more  fitting  phrases  than  they  are 
at  present  capable  of  doing. 



By  William  Pittcngcr 
Most  men  dread  being  called  upon  to  respond  to  a 
toast  or  to  make  an  address.  What  would  you  not 
give  for  the  ability  to  be  rid  of  this  embarrassment  ? 
No  need  to  give  much  when  you  can  learn  the  art 
from  this  little  book.  It  will  tell  you  how  to  do  it; 
not  only  that,  but  by  example  it  will  show  tbe  way. 
It  is  v;il liable  not  alone  to  the  novice,  but  the 
experienced  speaker  will  gather  from  it  many 



By  William  ^ittenger 
Thore  is  no  greater  ability  than  the  power  of  skillful 
and  forcible  debate,  and  no  accomplishment  more 
readily  acquired  if  the  person  is  properly  directed. 
In  this  little  volume  are  directions  for  organizing 
and  conducting  debating  societies  and  practical  sug- 
gestions for  all  who  desire  to  discuss  questions  in 
public.  There  is  also  a  list  of  over  200  questions  for 
debate,  with  arguments  both  athrmativeand  negative 



By  Paul  Allardyce 
Few  persons  can  punctuate  properly ;  to  avoid  mis- 
takes, many  do  not  punctuate  at  all.  A  perusal  of 
this  book  will  remove  all  difficulties  and  make  all 
points  clear.  The  rules  are  clearly  stated  and  freely 
illustrated,  thus  furnishing  a  most  useful  volume. 
The  author  is  everywhere  recognized  as  the  leading 
authority  upon  the  suljject,  and  what  he  has  to  say 
is  practical,  concise,  and  comprehensive. 


By  Henry  Ward  Bccchcr 
It  must  be  conceded  that  few  men  ever  enjoyed  a 
wider  experience  or  achieved  a  higher  reputation 
in  the  realm  of  public  oratory  than  Mr.  Beecher. 
What  he  had  to  say  on  this  subject  was  born  of 
experience,  and  his  own  inimitable  style  was  at  once 
both  statement  and  illustration  of  his  theme.  This 
volume  is  a  unique  and  masterly  treatise  on  the 
fundamental  principles  of  true  oratory. 


By  J.  P.  Mahaffy 
Some  people  ave  accused  of  talking  too  much.  Btit 
no  one  is  ever  taken  to  task  for  talking  too  well.  Of 
all  the  accomplishments  of  modern  society,  that  of 
being  an  agreeable  conversationalist  holds  first  place. 
Nothing  is  more  delightful  or  valuable.  To  suggest 
what  to  say  just  how  and  when  to  say  it,  is  the 
general  aiux  of  this  work,  and  it  succeeds  mu?* 
admirably  in  its  purpose. 


By  Ernest  Legouve 

rhe  ability  to  read  aloud  well,  whether  at  the  fire- 
side or  on  the  i)ublic  platform,  is  certainly  a  fine  art. 
The  directions  and  suggestions  contained  in  this 
work  of  standard  authority  will  go  far  toward  the 
attainment  of  tbis  delightful  and  valuable  accom- 
plishment. Tiie  work  is  especially  recommended  to 
teachers  and  others  interested  in  the  instruction  of. 
public  richu.»l  pUpilci. 


By  Dean  Rivers 

Conundrums  are  intellectual  exercises  which  sharpen 
our  wits  and  lead  us  to  think  quickly.  They  are  also 
a  source  of  infinite  pleasure  and  amusement,  whiling 
away  tedious  hours  and  putting  every  one  in  a 
general  good  humor.  This  book  contains  an  excel- 
lent collection  of  over  a  thousand  of  the  latest,  bright- 
est, and  most  up-to-date  conundrums,  to  which  are 
added  many  Biblical,  poetical  and  French  conun^ 


By  Cavendish  Twenty-third  Edition 

*'  According  to  Cavendish  "  is  now  almost  as  familiar 
an  expression  as  "  according  to  Hoyle."  No  whist 
player,  whether  a  novice  or  an  expert,  can  afford  to 
bwj  without  the  aid  and  support  of  Cavendish.  No 
household  in  which  the  game  is  played  is  complete 
without  a  copy  of  tliis  book.  This  edition  contains 
all  of  the  matter  found  in  the  English  publication 
and  at  one-fourth  the  cost. 


By  Helen  E.  HolHster 
"  What  shall  we  do  to  amuse  ourselves  and  our 
friends?"  is  a  question  frequently  propounded  on 
rainy  days  and  long  winter  evenings.  This  volume 
most  happily  answers  this  question,  as  it  contains  a 
S})lendid  collection  of  all  kinds  of  games  for  amuse- 
ment, entertainment,  and  instruction.  The  games 
are  adapted  to  both  old  and  young,  as  all  classes 
will  find  them  both  profitable  and  interesting. 


By  Julia  MacNair  Wright 
Can  you  tell  what  causes  day  and  night,  seasons  and 
years,  tides  and  eclipses  ?  Why  is  the  sky  blue  and 
Mars  red  ?  What  are  meteors  and  shooting  stars  ? 
These  and  a  thousand  other  (juestions  are  answered 
in  a  most  fascinating  way  in  this  highly  interesting 
volume.  Few  books  contain  as  much  valuable 
material  so  }»leasantly  packed  in  so  small  a  space. 


By  Tulia  MacNair  Wright 
The  scientific  study  of  Botany  made  as  interesting 
as  a  fairy  tale.  It  is  better  reading  than  such  tales, 
because  of  the  protit.  Each  chajiter  is  devoted  to  the 
month  of  the  year  in  which  plants  of  that  month 
are  in  evidence.  Xot  onl  v  is  the  subject  treated  with 
Ijotanical  accuracy,  Init  there  is  given  much  prac- 
tical information  pertaining  to  the  care  and  treat' 
ment  of  plants  and  flowers. 



By  Eben  E.  Rexford 

Every  woman  loves  flowers,  but  few  succeed  in  grow- 
ing them.  \Mth  the  help  so  clearly  given  in  this 
book  no  one  need  fail.  It  treats  mainly  of  indoor 
flowers  and  plants — those  for  window  gardening  ;  all 
about  their  selection,  car 3,  soil,  air,  light,  warmth, 
etc.  The  chapter  on  table  decoration  alone  is  worth 
the  price  of  the  book. 


By  Marguerite  "Wilson 
A  complete  instructor,  beginning  with  the  first 
positions  and  steps  and  leading  up  to  the  squara  and 
round  dances.  It  contains  also  a  full  list  of  calls  for 
all  of  the  square  dances,  and  the  necessary  music 
for  each  figure,  the  etiquette  of  the  dances,  and  100 
figures  for  the  german.  It  is  unusually  well  illus- 
trated by  a  large  number  of  original  drawings. 
Without  doubt  the  best  book  on  the  subject. 


By  Henry  Frith 
There  is  to-day  probably  no  more  popular  character 
study  than  that  of  Palmistry,  Many  more  people 
would  be  interested  in  it  if  there  were  a  convenient 
book  that  came  within  their  comprehension  and  that 
was  reliable.  This  volume  furnishes  full  and  trust- 
worthy information  on  the  siil)ject,  and  with  a  little 
practice  any  person  will  be  able  to  read  character, 
recall  past  events,  and  forecast  future  occurrences, 
upon  examination  of  the  hand.     Fully  illustrated. 


By  Paschall  H.  Coggins,  Esq» 
IVlost  legal  difficulties  arise  from  ignorance  of  the 
minor  points  of  law.  This  book  furnishes  to  the  busy 
man  and  woman  information  on  just  such  points  as 
are  most  likely  to  arise  in  everj^-day  affairs,  and  thus 
forestalls  them  against  mental  worry  and  financial 
loss.  Not  only  is  this  information  liberally  given, 
but  every  point  is  so  explained  by  means  of  a  prac- 
tical illustration  that  the  reader  will  not  only  under- 
stand the  law  on  the  subject,  but  cannot  fail  to 
^♦^member  it.  ^ 


By  Edward  S.  Ellis,  A.  M, 
All  literature,  even  the  daily  papers,  abound  in  classi- 
cal allusions,  but  only  a  few  persons  understand  their 
meaning.  The  interest  and  value  of  what  is  read 
and  heard  will  be  greatly  enhanced  by  the  possession 
of  this  unique  volume.  It  contains  all  the  classical 
allusions  worth  knowing,  and  so  ready  of  access  as 
to  require  little  or  no  time  in  looking  up.  Its  con- 
venient size  will  cause  it  to  be  frequently  consulted 
when  a  large  and  cumbersome  volume  would  ba 


By  Edward  S.  Ellis,  A.  M. 

All  modern  biography  finds  not  only  its  origin  but 
its  model  in  the  lives  of  the  ancient  Greeks  and 
Romans  as  set  forth  by  Plutarch.  In  this  condensed 
yet  comprehensive  work  only  such  personages  are 
mentioned  as  are  most  likely  to  be  inquired  about, 
and  the  information  pertaining  to  them  is  of  just 
such  a  nature  as  will  be  of  the  greatest  interest. 
The  book  is  especially  adapted  for  use  in  public  and 
private  schools,  and  by  busy  men  and  women  in 
every  sphere  of  life. 


By  Horace  Hutchinson 

There  is  no  more  popular  outdoor  sport  than  golf. 
No  one  desiring  to  keep  up  with  outdoor  athletics 
can  afford  to  be  without  a  knowledge  of  it.  This 
book  gives  a  comi)lete  history  of  the  subject,  together 
with  instructions  for  the  selection  of  implements, 
and  complete  directions  for  playing.  There  is 
in  addition  a  complete  glossary  of  golf  terms,  to- 
gether with  the  rules  and  eti([uette  of  the  game. 


By  EUis  Stanyoo 
There  is  no  more  delightful  form  of  entertainment 
than  that  afforded  by  the  performances  of  a  magi- 
cian. This  book  so  clearly  states  everything  that 
anyone  with  ordinary  intelligence  can  very  soon 
learn  to  perform  any  trick  that  it  contains.  It 
embraces  full  and  detailed  descriptions  of  all  the 
well-known  tricks  with  coins,  handkerchiefs,  billiard 
balls,  hats,  flowers,  and  cards,  together  with  a 
number  of  novelties  not  previously  produced  ot 
explained.     Fully  illustrated. 


By  S.  Virginia  Levis 
No  household  is  permanently  free  from  sickness,  and 
it  generally  appears  when  no  provision  has  been 
made  for  it.  Not  everyone  can  aft'ord  or  can  secure 
a  professional  nurse,  but  no  one  need  be  without 
this  valuable  work.  It  is  the  next  best  thing  to  a 
trained  nurse.  The  fullest  particulars  are  given  for 
the  care  of  the  sick  in  all  the  simple  as  well  as  the 
serious  ailments  from  childhood  to  old  age. 

University  of  California 

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